Is Crop Estimation More Challenging in a Poor Fruit Set Year?

Dr. Patty Skinkis, Professor and Viticulture Extension Specialist, OSU

Every summer, vineyard staff spend days to weeks gathering data from field counts and weights to obtain harvest yield estimates. Getting as close to harvest estimates as possible is a primary goal of many producers. It is critical to make cluster thinning decisions to meet contract stipulations, purchase enough winery supplies, and ensure sufficient space is available at the winery for processing.

Over the past six or seven years, Oregon has had some of the highest and lowest wine grape yields. Vine yield was at a record low in 2020 due to poor climatic conditions during bloom. Crop estimation is challenging in a typical year, but it is especially challenging in poor fruit set years. This is due to the greater berry and cluster weight variability that requires more attention to detail in sample collection.

My lab has been working on ways to improve crop estimation for Pinot noir growers for a decade. This work was done to improve our current methods of estimating crop, and I have shared some of that work with the industry over the years (see Additional Information below). By using day count since bud break and bloom, and heat units (growing degree-days in Fahrenheit, GDD50) accumulated after those phenological stages, we found the berry development curve was tightly related to both day count and thermal time. These relationships allowed us to develop equations for cluster weight increase factors that would help growers estimate crop yields. I had many questions come in last year about how crop estimation methods would change due to the poor fruit set, so we took advantage of the year to understand how well our model works.

In 2020, we began monitoring berry development in a new project to quantify vine physiology and growth amongst different soil types. Within that project, we monitor berry development in the same way we did in our prior work from 2011-2016, starting with cluster sampling from ~20 days post-bloom and continuing until harvest. We collected 60 Pinot noir clusters once or twice weekly. Each cluster was measured for cluster weight, berry count, berry weight, rachis weight, rachis length, berry diameter, and seed hardness.

The findings. Berry size was smaller than normal, reaching an average size of 0.85 g (+0.2 g) at harvest (Figure 1). The typical Pinot noir berry is 1.0 g at harvest. There was also more variability in berry size with many “hens and chicks” throughout the entire season. Many small berries persisted with fewer larger berries. Clusters had substantial weight variation (Figure 2) due to varying berry count and berry size per cluster. By harvest, clusters ranged from 21 berries to as many as 186 berries, with the mean size of 81 berries per cluster. Mean cluster weight was under 80 g per cluster. A few veteran grape growers and winemakers comment that small berries do not double in size, so increase factors during lag phase crop estimation need to be lower than normal. We tested this question with our data in 2020, and we found that berries still double in size from lag to harvest (Figure 1). Cluster weight also increased as usual. Berry weight plateaued at 50-60 days post 50% bloom (lag phase), and this related to a cluster weight increase factor of 1.9 by harvest. This matched our prior study findings. The increase factor refers to the number used to multiply the mean cluster weight at sampling to obtain the final cluster weight for harvest. Berries reached their full size by 90 days post-bloom, about 5-10 days later than for berries in our model from 2011-2016.

Figure 1. Pinot noir berry mass increase based on day count post mid-bloom through harvest in 2020. Data points represent berry mass from 60 clusters, and error bars are standard deviations of the mean. The error bars are difficult to see given the small berry weight in the first six sample dates.
Figure 2. Pinot noir cluster mass increase based on day count post mid-bloom through harvest in 2020. Data points represent means from 60 clusters, and error bars are standard deviations of the mean.

When the cluster weight increase factors for 2020 were compared with the model, there was strong agreement at and after 30 days (Figure 3). The one sample date at 23 days post 50% bloom was higher than the model. However, the model matched precisely for 30 days post-bloom, and all other dates had agreement at 90% or better except for the two dates closest to harvest that underestimated cluster weight by 20-30%. Often the pre-harvest cluster weights may be variable due to berry desiccation with warm weather or extended hang time. These results show that the standard procedures for increase factor determination would apply for clusters with variable set.

Figure 3. Increase factors for cluster weights at day count post 50% bloom. The 2020 data points represent the increase factor mean of 60 clusters sampled at each date compared to the mean weight at harvest on 13 Sept 2020 (n=54 clusters). The calculated values are based on an increase factor model developed by Skinkis and McLaughlin (in progress).

How to estimate yield in poor set years. An essential part of crop estimation is obtaining a representative cluster sample that represents the vineyard spatially. Good vine and cluster counts are also needed. How the cluster sample is obtained is important in any year but particularly critical to do well in a poor set year where there is more variability than normal in berries per cluster and berry weight. To ensure the best crop estimates, employ sound sampling protocols to get cluster counts per vine and cluster weights from representative vines spatially distributed throughout the vineyard block and use appropriate increase factors. If you have inadequate sampling procedures (not enough clusters and not well distributed spatially), you can expect that your estimations will be even more variable and likely less accurate. I do not recommend a certain number of clusters, as it will vary by your vineyard size and level of variability. However, it should be a large enough sample to explain variability across the vineyard block accurately. Keep notes on your methods and be sure to train those who are sampling to follow those methods.

If you wish to use the OSU increase factor equations this year, contact me at patricia.skinkis@oregonstate.edu.

Additional Information

Skinkis, P. 2017. Crop Estimation: It’s all about timing and good data. Oregon Wine Research Institute Vine to Wine Newsletter, July 2017.

Skinkis, P. 2019. Improved Crop Estimation Methods for Oregon Pinot Noir. Oregon Wine Symposium, Portland, OR (seminar video).

Developing a new methodology for marker-free gene editing in grapevine

Dr. Laurent Deluc, Associate Professor, Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University

In March 2018, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) released a statement that they will not regulate plants modified through genome editing. Gene editing, the most popular being the CRISPR/Cas9 system, holds enormous promise for the development of accelerated breeding programs focused on the release of improved plant materials. A current significant focus is to identify grapevine material resistant or tolerant to extreme environmental conditions like drought, cold, and heat. Another research avenue is to generate new material resistant to major pests and diseases like Powdery and Downy Mildew and Botrytis. The wine grape industry may benefit from this federal decision to breed future elite cultivars more amenable to abiotic and biotic stresses. Unfortunately, the generation of transgenic plants is, in most cases, necessary to conduct the gene editing. This results in integrating bacterial-related sequences in the plant genome, making the engineered materials labeled Genetically Modified Organisms. Because of the GMO’s poor acceptance, there is a need to identify new methods to deliver gene-editing components to the plants without inserting “foreign DNA” in the targeted plant genome. The grapevine commodity will then fully benefit from the outstanding potential of gene-editing technology for genetic improvement.

Delivering a Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) like the protein Cas9 complexed to an RNA molecule to intact plant cells could be a very innovative solution for accepting the gene-editing technology for many crops. The RNP delivery has been tested for years in animal cells (Ramakrishna et al. 2014). In grapevine, initial studies to deliver the RNP are to date mostly limited to “naked” plant cells (protoplasts) (Malnoy et al. 2016). Unfortunately, grapevine plant regeneration from protoplasts has yet to be optimized. The physical delivery of the RNP to regenerable plant tissue (material from which you can regenerate a plant) will be significant to fully maximize gene editing applications for the grapevine. Though, the RNP complex will have to deal with a substantial barrier, the cell wall. The cell wall is an integral component of plant cells. It performs many essential functions, including, but not limited to, the shape and strength of cells, the protection against physical shocks, the control of cell expansion, the transport of substances between and across the cell, and a barrier between the interior cellular components and the external environment. A plant cell wall’s structure and composition are complex, tissue-specific, and vary over time, making a pretty complicated structure to be crossed. Nanoparticles were shown to deliver different molecules (DNA, RNA, and protein) in mammalian cells. In plant cells, their use in agriculture begins to gain more attention with relative success to deliver different molecules in normal plant cells containing cell walls.

The scientific community currently pays much attention to a particular class of nanoparticles, the Cell-wall Penetrating Peptide (CPP). Compared to other nanoparticles like gold or silicone particles, they tend to be much less cytotoxic to the plants. They can help deliver large cargo molecules like protein, DNA, and RNA (Numata et al. 2018). It consists of short peptide sequences (5 to 30 amino acid residues) that facilitate the cargo’s penetration through the cell membrane. Recent studies have demonstrated CPP’s efficacy to penetrate intact plant cells (Numata et al. 2018). The development of methodology for CPP-mediated delivery of a CRISPR/CAs9 system to a regenerable grapevine plant material will then be a game-changer because it will align with the pursuit of generating edited grapevine material that is GMO-free.

In our lab, we have developed two research projects to examine the efficacy of several CPPs to deliver the CRISPR/Cas9 complex. In our lab, we have generated transgenic lines that express the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) ectopically. As proof of concept, we tested the penetration efficiency of various CPPs to deliver a RNP to knock out the GFP gene expression. Preliminary results are promising, but they need reproducibility. We are currently designing experiments to improve the penetration efficiency rate of several tested CPPs.

Consideration and conclusions:
The discovery of CRISPR/Cas9 for more than ten years has dramatically opened new perspectives for advancing fundamental knowledge and genetic improvement in plant sciences and breeding. As a major crop in the U.S., Grapevine will benefit from its technology tool to develop innovative and accelerated breeding programs. Introducing new performance traits into existing cultivars is a major quest for the grapevine industry. The resistance to major fungal and bacterial pathogens is often cited as essential traits for which conventional breeding and traditional biotechnology (genetic transformation) may not be suitable. The development of a new methodology to create gene-edited material that is marker-free is an attractive alternative to time-consuming breeding programs. Likewise, the application of synthetic biology via precise gene editing is of particular value for crop production. One significant example for synthetic biology is the editing of DNA regions involved in inducing or repressing gene expression, the promoter region. Gene editing of promoter regions can generate plant materials for which the expression of multiple genes associated with a particular cellular process and/or a trait could be modulated at a given time. Chemically inducible systems are fundamental tools in modern agriculture with many potential uses to control plant growth. For better public acceptance, this will require the generation of scarless precise genome-edited material of the promoter regions. The public will likely accept an editing process that is transgene-free and does not affect plant proteins’ integrity.

This work is currently funded by the Oregon Wine Board, the Erath Family Foundation, and a forthcoming USDA-National Institute of Food and Agriculture award.

Literature Cited

Malnoy M, Viola R, Jung M-H, Koo O-J, Kim S, Kim J-S, Velasco R, Nagamangala Kanchiswamy C. 2016. DNA-Free Genetically Edited Grapevine and Apple Protoplast Using CRISPR/Cas9 Ribonucleoproteins. Front Plant Sci 7:1904. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01904

Numata K, Horii Y, Oikawa K, Miyagi Y, Demura T, Ohtani M. 2018. Library screening of cell-penetrating peptide for BY-2 cells, leaves of Arabidopsis, tobacco, tomato, poplar, and rice callus. Scientific Reports 8:10966. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-29298-6

Ramakrishna S, Kwaku Dad A-B, Beloor J, Gopalappa R, Lee S-K, Kim H. 2014. Gene disruption by cell-penetrating peptide-mediated delivery of Cas9 protein and guide RNA. Genome Res 24:1020-1027. DOI: 10.1101/gr.171264.113

Can Altering Canopy Shape Increase Productivity of Pinot noir: a new experiment at OSU’s Research Vineyard

Dr. R. Paul Schreiner, Research Plant Physiologist, USDA-ARS, Corvallis, OR

The newest block at Woodhall Research Vineyard is now six years old, and we will begin work in earnest next growing season to ask some fundamental production questions for Pinot noir. The key question is whether opening the top of a standard VSP training system (resulting in a Y-shaped canopy) will increase Pinot noir productivity without sacrificing quality (Figure 1). A second question is whether planting vines at a higher density impacts vine productivity or fruit quality. These questions are being addressed using a factorial experiment where two trellis treatments (traditional VSP & wide VSP) and two vine density treatments (3-foot and 6-foot in-row spacing) are applied in a randomized block design with five blocks. Each experimental plot has five continuous rows of vines about 100 feet long. Data will be collected from the middle three rows, allowing a border row of identical treatment on each side. Different crop levels will be applied to each of the trellis × density treatments by randomly assigning the north or south half of each plot to either low or high crop levels. The trellis and vine density treatments have been in place since 2015, and crop load will be manipulated for the first time next year. The vines were established using industry-standard practices (irrigation, fertilization, no crop in first two years, slowly increasing crop levels thereafter). In the last two years, vines were irrigated only twice each summer, when leaf water potential values reached about -1.4 MPa.

Why this design? Pinot noir producers in western Oregon use a VSP trellis system nearly exclusively where the shoots exist in a tight vertical plane that exposes only a small fraction of leaves to sunlight at midday when solar radiation is maximal. Opening the top of the trellis using a wide VSP system should increase net vine photosynthesis and the vine’s overall carbon budget, allowing more fruit to be produced per acre compared to a traditional VSP. This change can be implemented without removing the existing trellis, keeping costs low for this modification. A similar trellis design was shown to increase yield without compromising quality in Riesling vineyards (Reynolds et al. 1996). Pinot noir producers still thin crop to low levels, leaving 25-40% of their fruit on the vineyard floor. If opening up the canopy can allow Pinot noir producers to ripen more fruit per acre without negatively affecting quality, this approach can increase profits and sustainable production. Vine density per acre may also impact vine productivity or quality directly or by interacting with the altered trellis system. Still, such impacts cannot be predicted based on current knowledge. Since grafted grapevines cost about $5 each, reducing the number of plants needed per acre will significantly reduce establishment costs.

We have collected baseline data from the past five years. The block produced 2.2 US tons per acre in 2019 when the fruit was thinned to one cluster per shoot. Yield in 2020 was 2.5 tons per acre when no fruit thinning was applied due to low set in 2020. Thus far, yield has not been altered by the trellis or vine density treatments. However, vine vegetative growth based on pruning weights was altered for the first time in 2019. The high-density vines produced more shoot biomass in the wide VSP than the traditional VSP, but the low-density vines did not. Thus, the wide VSP appeared to capture more carbon than the traditional VSP in 2019, but only in high-density vines. We do not yet know if a similar response occurred in 2020 since pruning weights have not been obtained yet. Treatments have not altered yield parameters such as cluster weight and berry weight. Fruit composition based on must soluble solids, pH, titratable acids, and mineral nutrient concentrations has not been altered either. The application of different crop levels next year will result in a different yield, and this will begin to provide the true test of this experiment. I am excited to test these ideas on a large scale.

This research addresses improving vineyard production efficiency by altering the most common Pinot noir training system. If our hypothesis is correct, this research will improve Pinot noir wine grape growers’ profitability by increasing yield per acre, thus improving overall land and resource use efficiency.

Figure 1. Pinot noir in the Trellis Experiment at Woodhall Research Vineyard near midday on August 26, 2020. Top panel: Standard VSP. Bottom panel: Wide VSP. Note: larger shadow under Wide VSP vines.

Literature Cited

Reynolds AG, Wardle DA and Naylor AP. 1996. Impact of training system, vine spacing, and basal leaf removal on Riesling. Vine performance, berry composition, canopy microclimate, and vineyard labor requirements. Am J Enol Vitic 47:63-76.

Avoid mixing biologicals with antimicrobials

Dr. Jay W. Pscheidt and Lisa Jones, Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University

Actinovate AG (Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108) and many other biological products are used in the management of organic grapes. Tank mixing more than one product is both economical and time-saving but tank mix compatibilities with biological control products such as Actinovate have not been thoroughly evaluated. In 2016, we examined the tank mix compatibility of Actinovate AG with commonly used organic products.

Actinovate AG was prepared at a concentration of 0.1g/ml. A 300 ml solution of Actinovate was prepared in a 500 ml beaker then mixed with each material and allowed to stand for 30 minutes. The mixture was then plated onto agar and incubated for 7 days at room temperature. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) of S. lydicus exposed in each mix was assessed daily and compared to an Actinovate plus water only control. The percentage of S. lydicus CFU in each tank mix compared to the CFU in the Actinovate control was calculated.

An average of 3.2×105 S. lydicus CFU developed after 7 days incubation on the various media when Actinovate was just mixed with water. Several products inhibited the growth of S. lydicus when prepared in as a mixture in the laboratory. No growth of S. lydicus was observed on plates when Actinovate was mixed with Horticultural Vinegar, a high rate of Regalia, Rex Lime Sulfur, Serenade Optimum, or Solubor DF. Less than 10% of the S. lydicus CFU grew when Actinovate was mixed with Biomin Calcium, Botector, Neptune’s Harvest 2-4-1 fish fertilizer, or Thuricide. Significantly fewer S. lydicus CFU grew when Double Nickel, the low rate of Regalia, Serenade Max, the high rate of Stimplex or Toggle were mix with Actinovate. There was no significant difference in the number of S. lydicus CFU that grew when Zen-O-Spore was mixed with Actinovate. The number of S. lydicus CFU was greater than double (219%) or quadruple (482%) that of the Actinovate control when mixed with Nitrozyme or the low rate of Stimplex, respectively.

Many of the biological products in this study grew quicker than S. lydicus under laboratory conditions. These fungi or bacteria generally outcompeted S. lydicus for space and resources on the agar plates. The fungus found in Zen-O-Spore was slower to grow and did not outcompete S. lydicus during the 7-day incubation.

This data does not imply a lack of or enhanced disease control in the field. For example, blueberry field trials over a 2-year period where Actinovate was mixed with Simplex did not result in disease control that was different than when either product was used alone. The data does indicate incompatibility between various products used in organic production.

For a complete data set please visit: http://sites.science.oregonstate.edu/bpp/Plant_Clinic/Fungicidebooklet/2016/Blueberry3.pdf

Pest Alert: Grape Cane Borer

Dr. Patty Skinkis, Professor and Viticulture Extension Specialist, OSU
Dr. Vaughn Walton, Professor and Horticultural Entomologist, OSU

There have been an increasing number of reports of grape cane borer presence and damage in vineyards throughout the Willamette Valley this winter. Typically these reports during the bud break period in April when adults are active and evidence of shoot dieback occurs. However, we have received numerous reports this January and early February as growers begin pruning. This observation may be due to various factors including more suitable weather conditions (winter and summer), higher levels of populations surviving, more suitable host plant materials, increased awareness and improved monitoring. The borers can have a long life cycle within the vine, living as larvae (grubs) within the shoot or cane for nearly one year. Adults lay eggs during early spring and hatch and develop into larvae that feed on the shoot tissues during the growing season. They remain in the wood as pupae during winter and may be found when pruning commences. Both pupae and adults have been reported in southern and mid-Willamette Valley vineyards this winter. This article covers the most salient points for your awareness this winter; please consult additional resources below for further details.

What to look for in the vineyard:
Galleries burrowed by larvae can be observed in cane tissue usually in older or dead wood, canes, spurs, or cordons. These holes are round, drill-like holes of ~0.4 mm diameter, and they are often accompanied with sawdust that was produced by the adult when burrowing into the shoot during late summer or early fall the year prior. Cutting into the wood near these holes during pruning will likely reveal a pupa that is 1-8 mm in length (<0.3 in).

Management:
Insecticide application is often difficult to apply during the dormancy period due to the difficulty for the application to reach the pest and the inability to get into the vineyard with equipment. There are biological controls, such as the Steinernema carpocapsae, an entomopathogenic nematode, that may be used, but care needs to be taken to ensure that the product is handled properly and applied to the entry points of the pest to be effective. In some cases, the best method will be to cut out any canes that have the burrow holes evident. Remove pruning wood, as the wood contains the pupae that will emerge in spring. Removing the pest from the vineyard will ensure that a population does not exist to allow new infestations into tissues.

For more information about the cane borer, please see the following resources:

Vole Damage in Vineyards

Dr. Patty Skinkis, Associate Professor and Viticulture Extension Specialist, OSU 

I received a number of reports of vole damage in vineyards throughout the Willamette Valley this season. Evidence of their presence became visible in August with feeding damage to trunks (Figure 1) and within the canopy, including damage to shoots and rachises of grape clusters (Figure 2). Voles eat vegetation and typically feed on roots or the base of trunks. Voles do not typically cause issues until a population peak and/or environmental conditions allow for habitation. They may reach epidemic-level populations every ten to 12 years, but these population surges are not predictable and last for one year (Gunn et al. 2011). The Willamette Valley’s last reported vineyard infestation occurred in 2005, and some vineyards lost vines due to the damage.

Preventing and eradicating voles.  Our best suggestions to growers who have been observing vole presence in vineyards has been to encourage eradication. Trapping or baiting voles may not be practical on large acreage or advised with certain farming certifications. For example, zinc phosphide is not allowed in organic production. However, soil tillage or mowing may provide some level of prevention and control. Research in field crops show that tilling the soil is the most effective method of reducing vole populations (Jacob 2003), by disturbing their burrows and causing movement to other vegetated areas. Voles avoid bare ground, so tillage can prevent habitation altogether. In the Jacob (2003) study, they found voles disappeared altogether after disking to a depth of 19 inches. Mowing vegetation was found less effective than tillage, as the mulch from mowing allowed sufficient cover for the voles and did not encourage movement away from the cropped areas. Avoiding mulch layers or vegetation growth under-vine will prevent voles from inhabiting the areas near grapevine trunks and feeding on roots and trunks when food sources are limited.

Scouting for damage. Voles tend to feed on vine roots and at the base of trunks. Look for feeding damage at and just below the soil surface. Since the feeding typically occurs through the phloem and vascular cambium, the cell layers that lie between the phloem to the exterior and xylem to the interior, the vascular system is compromised. As a result, affected vines may turn color abruptly (yellow or red, Figure 3), as they have limited ability to move photosynthates (sugars) and mineral nutrients through the vines to the roots once the phloem and cambium are damaged. Roots are actively acquiring carbohydrates and mineral nutrients from the canopy during late season in preparation for the next year. Having this connection severed is a major issue.

Can anything be done to repair damaged vines? Vines with girdled trunks and root damage may not survive if the damage is done to the circumference of the vine. This is due to the lack of vascular cambium to grow new phloem tissue and “heal” the wound. The best thing to do at this time is flag vines with damage now and check back later in winter during pruning and early spring. If damage was only apparent in the canopy (rachises, berries, and shoots), vines may be able to be pruned to healthy tissue in winter. However, also be sure to flag these vines for follow-up.

Because voles do not hibernate, high populations this winter may pose a threat to vines if they continue feeding in areas where they were observed this season. It will be important to remove vegetation by way of tilling soil or removing mulch layers or vegetation under-vine to avoid any further damage.

Literature Cited

Gunn D, Hirnyck R, Shewmaker G, Takatori S, and Ellis L. 2011. Meadow voles and pocket gophers: Management in lawns, gardens, and cropland. University of Idaho, PNW 627.

Jacob J. 2003. Short-term effects of farming practices on populations of common voles. Ag Ecosyst Environ 95:321-325.

 

Figure 1. Vole damage to the base of a trunk on a mature grapevine. Photo courtesy of Ryan Wilkinson.

 

Figure 2. Feeding damage is apparent on the top of the grape cluster’s rachis (peduncle) and the lower portions of the shoot from which it originates. Photo courtesy of Ryan Wilkinson.

 

Figure 3. Vines with vole damage to the trunk show almost complete reddening of the canopy in Pinot noir vines. Photo courtesy of Ryan Wilkinson.

 

Rust Mites Can Cause Damage Shortly After Budbreak

Rust Mites Can Cause Damage Shortly After Budbreak

Dr. Patty Skinkis, Viticulture Extension Specialist & Associate Professor

Grape rust mites have been a nuisance pest in vineyards of western Oregon for years. They can be found living on grape tissues from early spring through summer. Grape rust mite has been known to cause shoot deformity early in the growing season with most notable damage in years when vines have delayed growth under cool conditions.

Being aware of the first signs and symptoms of rust mite infestation in early spring is important to determine if there is a problem. However, visual symptoms are not enough for action. It is critical to determine presence of grape rust mites before considering application of miticide sprays. The presence of high numbers of rust mites have been found to cause severe stunting of emerging buds and  young shoots. For examples of these symptoms, see the grape rust mite section of the PNW Insect Management Handbook. There can be numerous other causes of stunted shoots, but with the hype of rust mite concerns, many growers blamed rust mites as the cause of all stunted shoots. As a result, there have been potentially unnecessary applications of miticides (sulfur, lime sulfur, stylet oil, or other miticide products) early in the season.

Grape rust mites are impossible to see with the naked eye, so tissue collection and viewing under magnification is required. A user-friendly method was recently developed by a team at the OWRI to monitor grape rust mites on vine tissues. This method has since been employed by growers in Oregon to determine presence of rust mites. The protocol is available for use and links provided below:

Using this method, we were able to determine a strong correlation of rust mite presence on stunted shoots early in the season. Damaged shoots often had hundreds of mites; there were over 100 mites found on shoots <10 cm in length using the rinse in bag protocol and up to 500 mites when evaluated upon subsequent extractions (Schreiner et al. 2014). Since there can be great variability in mite numbers and rapid growth of tissues early season, it is difficult to determine clear action thresholds. However, action is warranted if there is significant shoot stunting, deformity and confirmed high populations of rust mites. In-season sulfur sprays that are applied as a means to prevent powdery mildew has been found to keep rust mite populations in check (Schreiner et al. 2014). Current recommendations exist for early season rust mite control, and those can be found in the 2015 Pest Management Guide for Wine Grapes in Oregon.

For more information about monitoring for rust mites and management, see the following publications and resources:

Schreiner, R.P., P.A. Skinkis, and A.J. Dreves. 2014. A rapid method to assess grape rust mites on leaves and observations from case studies in Western Oregon vineyards. HortTechnology. 24: 38-47.

Skinkis, P.A., J.W. Pscheidt, E. Peachey, A.J. Dreves, V.M. Walton, I. Zasada, R. Martin, D. Sanchez, and C. Kaiser. 2015. 2015 Pest Management Guide for Wine Grapes in Oregon. OSU Extension Publishing.  https://catalog.extension.oregonstate.edu/sites/catalog.extension.oregonstate.edu/files/project/pdf/em8413_0.pdf

Skinkis, P. 2014. Grape Rust Mites, eXtension/eViticulture.org. http://www.extension.org/pages/33107/grape-rust-mite#.U_yZCHcXOVo

Skinkis, P., J. DeFrancesco, and V. Walton. 2015. Grape Rust Mite, PNW Insect Management Handbook. http://insect.pnwhandbooks.org/small-fruit/grape/grape-grape-rust-mite

September 21-27 is Farm Safety Week

Did you know that September 21-27 is National Farm Safety Week? It’s a good time to put on your learning cap and brush up on safety practices that will keep you and your employees safe. In honor of National Farm Safety Week, the Department of Environmental & Occupational Health Sciences -Pacific Northwest Agricultural Safety & Health, is providing information from the Northwest and other NIOSH Regional Ag Centers. For more information, search online for #NFSW14. 

 

Farmsafety

 

 

Seven Questions with…

Oregon State University Extension and Experiment Station Communications

  Vinay Pagay

1. What is your position at SOREC/OWRI?
I started my job at OSU-SOREC and the OWRI in January 2014 after receiving my doctorate at Cornell University in Ithaca, NY. My position is a combination of viticulture research (60%) and extension (40%), so an interesting mix of basic and applied research, as well as addressing issues faced by the grape and wine industry in Southern Oregon. In my position, I cover the Southern Oregon AVA (American Viticultural Area), which includes the Rogue (Bear Creek and Applegate Valleys), Illinois, and Umpqua Valleys.

2. What do you enjoy most about your work?
The most interesting part about this job is the diversity of viticulture that exists in Southern Oregon. Sub-regional climates, soils, and topography contribute to this diversity, but the plethora of grape varieties – by some accounts up to 70! – from both warm and cool climates make my job not only interesting but also challenging. Can you tell the two Portuguese cultivars Tinta Amarella (Trincadeira, if you prefer) and Tinta Barocca apart by looking at just their leaves? Email me if you’re curious to know how!

3. When you’re not working, what do you do?
My time outside of the office or vineyard is spent working out (I compete in Olympic-distance triathlons, so a lot of swimming/biking/running/weight training), hiking the hills around Southern Oregon, playing golf, and reading (currently a book entitled ‘The Sleepwalkers’ by Christopher Clark, a Cambridge historian; it is about the events leading up to the first world war – quite a gripping story). I am trying to get back into playing competitive tennis and classical piano, but have yet to find time for these. I also enjoy home brewing and baking breads when I’m home over the weekends.

4. How did you choose your career path?
While pursuing my first degree in computer engineering, I had an old friend from high school visit me in Montreal who led me through my first structured tasting of wine (red was the color of the evening). This delightful experience led me to read and learn more about the world’s wine regions, styles, and wine production, culminating in my enrolling at Brock University in Canada to do a degree in enology and viticulture. The mentorship I received while at Brock, and later at Cornell, were instrumental in my decision to pursue this career and current job at OSU/OWRI.

5. What’s the best advice you’ve ever received?
Take up a job you love and you’ll be successful (and maybe even wealthy!) before you know it. I think at least part of it has come true already!

6. Which three people (living or dead) would you invite to dinner?
-Thomas Jefferson (for his wine collection, of course)
– Sergei Prokofiev (Russian composer)
– Bill Clinton

7. What is your vision for the Southern Oregon wine industry?
I see the wine industry in Southern Oregon as destined for greatness and popularity not only within Oregon but also across the country. With significant acreages being planted with winegrapes across the region, higher grape and wine quality from the greater experience of the industry, the profile and visibility of this region is steadily increasing. The diversity of available grape varieties and wine styles provide tremendous opportunities for this region. While Southern Oregon has a number of major tourist attractions, e.g. Crater Lake, the Britt and Oregon Shakespeare Festivals, I envision wine tourism growing in this small but dynamic region of Oregon.

Oregon Department of Agriculture Grape Quarantine Update

Oregon Department of Agriculture Grape Quarantine Update 

glassy-winged-sharpshooter

The Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA) has updated its grape quarantine rules and added Pierce’s Disease (Xylella fastidiosa) to the already listed Grapevine fanleaf virus, grapevine leafroll associated viruses, grapevine corky bark disease agent, grape phylloxera, vine mealybug, and  European grapevine moth. The quarantine places restrictions on the importation of all parts of the grapevine into Oregon including the harvested fruit.  Please review the accompanying quarantine of Glassy-Wigned Sharpshooter as it is a vector of Pierce’s disease.

Please take the time to review these important changes. To view them in more detail, please visit the ODA website at: http://www.oregon.gov/oda/Pages/default.aspx.

Link to Grape Quarantine: 603-052-0051_072462014CLEAN

Link to Glassy-Wigned Sharpshooter: 603-052-1221_07242014CLEAN