Today is the last day on the beautiful islands of Palau for most of the 2022 Ridge to Reef crew. The experiences we have had filled us with inspiration, motivation, and ideas for the future to bring back to our communities. Each of us has grown in many ways personally and academically over the past two weeks, and we are all excited to move forward with new perspectives in our careers, education, and life experiences.
We can never truly express our gratitude to everyone who helped make this the incredible trip it was, but we would like to thank Ann Singeo and the Ebiil Society for their hospitality while we were in Ollei; their kindness, delicious cooking, and knowledge have left a strong impression on us, and we appreciate all the experiences and guests they facilitated. We would also like to thank mechas Rosa at the taro patch, Tino for fisheries management, the boat captains who took us out fishing and to the Ebiil Channel for snorkeling, and Jack Lin at the Palau National Aquaculture Center for sharing their time, culture, and experience with us. We have learned so much more than we could have anticipated, and we look forward to applying our newfound knowledge in our respective fields.
Our second week spent in Koror was equally enriching, and we would like to thank everyone at Palau Community College and the Cooperative Research Extension – where we learned about taro culturing and agroforestry, Ron Leidich and everyone at Rock Island Kayak Expeditions for two full days exploring the beautiful lakes and reefs of the Rock Islands while learning about eco-tourism in Palau, and Amy Lee at Reef Environmental Education Foundation for talking to us about citizen science and what career and education options are available at non-profits.
Last but not least, we would like to extend a heartfelt thank you to all the citizens of Palau for making us feel welcome while visiting their beautiful home, and to Bryan Endress, Scott Heppell, and Demian Hommel for facilitating this experience. Their guidance and experience were invaluable, and we cannot thank them enough for putting up with us for two weeks while guiding us through important conversations and providing a safe space for exploration and questioning.
Our morning began slowly, with a 9am meeting to discuss different graduate school and career options. We discussed the differences between thesis based and Professional Science Master’s programs and associated career trajectories. Scott, Damien, and Bryan spoke about the pros and cons of getting a Master’s degree directly after graduating with a Bachelors, and encouraged us all to go into a graduate program with a clear idea of what we want, to take our time deciding, or even consider alternative routes of career success through work experience. This was extremely valuable to all of the students in various stages of their lives and education.
To fill time until our next meeting, we decided we would visit the Etpison museum. Unfortunately, it was closed. Then, we improvised a trip to a local artist, Ling Inabo, who is famous for his story boards. Unfortunately, that was also closed, so we had another change of plans. Afterwards, we quickly decided to splurge at, L’Amarena, a local Italian owned gelato shop.
After sugar rushes and a slow morning, we returned to Yogi’s to rest and relax.
In the early afternoon, Amy Lee, from Reef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF) came to visit us at the BnB and talk about her program based in Key Largo, Florida. REEF is a non-profit that promotes citizen science and education related to conservation and biodiversity in marine ecosystems. Anne discussed the scope and techniques for their research. It is volunteer based, many of which are self proclaimed “fish nerds”. The volunteers are taught to identify region specific fishes before diving with a waterproof clip board that they use to document their findings. Divers mark what species they observe and designate their viewings as few, some, many, or abundant. Divers can increase in rank dependent on how many dives they’ve done through the REEF program. Over 225,000 surveys have been completed since the program started in 1993. There is a public database that provides valuable data to scientists and the general public. This research contributes to understanding species declines, the presence of invasive species, and even species discoveries.
REEF checks the data by comparing divers’ findings with the statistical norms for that region. By following up with divers who have observed species that are out of the ordinary for the location, they verify they were not confused with another species and that the diver is truly confident in their viewing.
REEF has been a highly successful program that has been involved in volunteer research, competitive invasive lionfish hunting, marine education for children, internships and graduate research, and much more.
After a few more hours of R&R, we left for Drop Off, a local bar and grill for our final organized meal together. We reunited with Ann Singeo to discuss the remainder of our adventures in Palau, exchange contact information, and say our final goodbyes before returning for the USA.
Continuing the previous day’s exploration of Palau’s Southern Rock Islands, we met again with Ron Leidich and departed for Risong Bay. After a short boat ride, we paired up into kayaks awaiting us beneath eroded overhang of an island. Ron explained the geological history of the islands, describing how thousands of years of coral growth around volcanic structures of the tectonic subduction zones were pulled deeper into the ocean and then forced back up to the surface, creating the limestone structures we know today. Erosion caused by tides, rain, organismal activity, and humic acids in the decaying leaf litter shaped these coral masses into forms of steep rock faces and undercut edges, an entirely unique environment from the main Palauan island of Babeldaob.
At our first stop, King Fisher Bay, we were fortunate enough to catch a glimpse of Palau’s evasive endemic national bird, the Palauan Fruit Dove. The birds are so rare that some Palauan’s have never even seen one.
We paddled further throughout the maze of islands and reached a no motorboat zone that led us to Mandarin Fish Lake, named after the multicolored fish that often reside in the large brain corals growing in the small marine lake. Although we never spotted the fish, we were able to explore and discover several other unique biological and geological features such as a salt waterfall with a tide dependent direction of flow and a sea crate that slithered past our kayaks before we too began to explore the area underwater. Secluded in a location that sees little tourism and is sheltered from storms and waves, the corals in Mandarin Fish Lake were some of largest and healthiest corals we had seen so far. The addition of freshwater from the rain from the previous night also created obvious halocline layers in the lake caused salinity difference between the first few feet of water and the water further down.
The next area was much smaller and secluded compared to the previous two. With the help of a large wooden ladder, we accessed the so-called Sunken City Lake. Hidden from poachers, and access only granted to those who are willing to climb over sharp limestone, the lake has harbored a brood stock of giant clams for the past few years. The presence of an underwater siphon channel leading to the main bay, which allows larval clams to pass, creates an ideal nursery for rehabilitation of the threatened group of bivalves. We got to help plant a few younger clams among the beautiful older clams.
We enjoyed some bento box lunches and diving competitions off the boats before exploring yet another bend in the continuous twists and turns of the Rock Island Marine Reserve. The small cove, colloquially known as Fish Pond, had a rich past. Historically, it was used by the Japanese for marine aquaculture so successfully that production became a profitable export. As we had seen throughout the whole trip, the tropic environment is quick to swallow and degrade, which we could see more evidence of from the WWII shipwreck covered in coral and clams at the bottom of the lake. Palau, although small, had an especially deep history relating to WWII.
Leaving the kayaks behind, we traveled to a fringing reef that we were told was decimated by Typhoon Bopha, ten years prior. Our first look through our snorkel masks was an incredible tell of the reef’s capacity to recover. Large boulder sized corals the size of small cars and fields of branching acropora corals hosting an array of fish including moray eels and rare rock mover wrasse kept us entranced until it was time to ride home. The end of the day consisted of naps and exciting reflection of our Rock Island adventures.
Our day started promptly at 8:00, meeting Ron and his crew at Rock Island Kayak Expedition. After he explained where we would be spending the day, we loaded the boats and made our way to the island of Mecherchar, home to Jellyfish Lake! After the hour-long boat ride, we hiked to the lake with anticipation. The jellyfish (which don’t sting) were abundant throughout the lake but were in the highest densities at the Eastern side. We swam about 20 minutes to the large mass of jellyfish. They were magical. Taking our time, we swam among the jellies until we were forced to head to the next destination.
We made our way to the island aptly named ‘shark city’. The Rock Islands are breathtaking, but the mix of bright sand and countless shades of blue had us all truly speechless. We ate chicken, fish, and veggie bento boxes overlooking the beautiful Rock Islands. After lunch, some of us immediately ran to the water to snorkel with the black-tip sharks. Little did we know that Ron had an even better surprise for us. He explained that the sharks inhabiting the waters surrounding this island have been habituated to large numbers of tourists. Consequently, they are accustomed to free food from tourists (Remember, never feed wild animals anywhere you go!) Our guides set up a line in shallow water and had us all gather shoulder-to-shoulder along it. They began throwing small food scraps in the water, and the 3-4-foot sharks began feasting right in front of us. After a few minutes of feeding frenzy, the sharks started getting a little too aggressive and this experience came to an end. We once again packed up the boats and headed to our next location.
Our last stop of the day was across the bay in the Giant Clam beds. We anchored and swam among 500lb clams. We were instructed to keep our eyes out for crown of thorn sea stars, which eat coral and can be destructive to the reefs. We enjoyed the snorkeling and eventually made our way to the nearby beach, which was littered with plastic. We scoured the beach, filling 11 large trash bags. The trash was loaded onto the boats and brought back with us to Koror for proper disposal.
Overall, it was a fantastic day, full of unique experiences that we will all remember for the rest of our lives and being able to pick up such a large quantity of trash made us all feel as though we have left Palau cleaner than we found it.
We started off our morning by piling into our three touring vans. The Disco Van took up the rear and discussed favorite fiction and non-fiction books while jamming out to house music and reggae. Other vans appreciated a sleepy ride in the early morning. Our first destination was the Palau Community College’s Cooperative Research Extension to learn about taro experiments led by Dr. Yin Yin Nwe. Dr. Nwe discussed the efforts to learn about the different taro species and how their different strengths can lead to better food security for island communities across the Pacific. The research has led to more than 2,000 taro plant materials delivered annually to communities.
Under Dr. Nwe’s tutelage, we learned how to culture plant tissues in a sterile environment, placing them in agar mediums to asexually propagate them for further research. Due to the size limitations of the lab, we split into two teams—one cutting and propagating the plant samples, while the other half toured the research fields and participated in a separate cultivation technique.
The first group learned how to propagate and sterilize month-old taro plants. First, the lab tools are dipped in an alcohol solution then lit on fire to fully sterilize. The plants were carefully extracted from their growing medium and placed on the lab table. The roots and shoots of the taro plants were removed and divided into offspring plants. The offspring cuttings were then placed in a new agar solution to encourage further growth.
The second group completed a propagation process with larger parent plants. This began by harvesting the taro and cutting both the corm and leaves from the stem. After cleaning the lower portion of the stem, we carved away the outer layers and soaked the cube-like sections in a bleach solution for thirty minutes. Once sterilized, we carefully dissected, shaped, and placed each cube into agar solutions with a rooting hormone to promote growth.
After we finished in the lab, the groups met up for lunch provided by PCC and enjoyed a tour of the rest of PCC’s research facilities. The research extension raises swine and chickens for protein, while also harvesting the manure to use as a valuable soil amendment. When combined with waste vegetation and properly aerated, the mixture forms compost within only two weeks. Next, we toured their taro patches, where we also learned about cultivation of sweet potatoes, lemongrass, Palauan apples, pineapples, and other native fruit trees that are grown alongside the taro. Each variety was carefully monitored and managed by the local women, who can easily identify each type of taro by assessing the color and shape of the leaves, stem, and corm. PCC and Dr. Nwe work closely with local Palauans to preserve the diversity of taro species around the island and identify the best management methods for each variety.
Upon returning back to base, we had a short break before heading back out to meet with Ron Leidich and his crew from Rock Island Kayak Expeditions (RIKE). Leidich gave an overview of his work cataloguing new species found on the Rock Islands, which will serve as a perfect jumping-off point for our upcoming two days of activities that he will be leading. He explored topics such as the compounding effects of COVID-19 and tourism on biodiversity. One concept he expanded upon was that of ecological innocence of species – ones that are so remote, they have never encountered humans and are therefore curious and unafraid of human contact. One danger reefs face is the threat of the crown of thorns starfish, which can eat up to its bodyweight of coral in 24 hours. The starfish are indirectly encouraged by tourism, which led to a discussion of the future of ecotourism in Palau. We took a dinner break provided by RIKE, which included potato salad, grilled snapper, pork ribs, and poke. Our closing activity after dinner was to view a boat made by Bradman Yarofalibug and other master craftsmen with traditional techniques—heavily resembling the boat from the movie Moana – unsurprising as Moana drew heavy inspiration from Palau among other Pacific Islands. The boat is seaworthy for the occasional trip out on the ocean.
Today we had a day off from class. Those of us who were dive certified went scuba diving and those that weren’t spent a day exploring the island.
The day started with an early trip to the donut shop to fuel our adventures. Then around 8 o’clock we were picked up by Sam’s Tours Dive Center and shuttled over to their location in Koror. Once the eight of us, along with four other tourists and three crew members were loaded onto the boat we began our scuba adventure. We had a forty-five minute boat ride until we reached German Channel, our first dive site. Everyone geared up and back rolled off the boat into the open ocean. We were lucky enough to get to see a manta ray around fourteen feet wide that was swimming in circles with smaller fish swimming underneath.
When we all were back on the boat we took a lunch break and discussed all the amazing things that we got to observe. After that we switched out our air tanks, drove to Blue Corner and began our second dive. On this dive we swam with coral reefs to the right and open ocean to the left.
The last dive was at an old cargo ship wreck site with the boat positioned in a way that one end of the boat was about forty feet underwater and the other almost eighty feet. The top side of the boat resembled the sea floor with how much sea life was covering it.
Our day started with breakfast and coffee at a small cafe in Koror. Then it was off to hike to Lake Ngardok, the largest freshwater lake in Micronesia. After the hike we went to cool off at a nearby beach and met up with a few others who had gone straight to the beach. We also had a delicious picnic of bento boxes. Afterwards some of us went to see some stone paths that are all around Palau, some of which are over a thousand years old. It was cool to see the blend of old Palau mixed with modern Palau.
After a breakfast of leftover pizza and pineapple, we walked to the end of the pier and waited for the boats to take us to Ebiil Channel. We made friends with the neighbor dog and relaxed in the shade. The glassy blue water made for a pleasant boat ride out to the snorkeling spot. We were all excited to see the channel that the Ebiil Society was named after.
The Ebiil Channel has been protected as a marine reserve for about 20 years, following the most devastating coral bleaching event that Palau has faced in 1998. The Ebiil Channel was somehow spared from the event, which inspired its protection. The protected area is about four miles wide and is a vital spawning ground for over 50 fish species, many of which are important food species. Ann described the reef as a magical area with an overwhelming number of fishes and colors. She said that it looks like a 100 pack of crayons exploded in the ocean, which got our hopes up for the most amazing snorkeling of our lives.
Upon leaving the boat, many of us were disappointed, seeing mostly shades of beige. For others, this was one of the first coral reefs they ever saw, quickly making it one of the most diverse ecosystems they have seen. We saw all types of fish species and even saw sharks, dolphins, and jellyfish. Nemo and Gill were even spotted in the area.
Once we got back to Ebiil, Ann compared the current state of the reef to what it has looked like in the past 20 years. Firstly, the reef is 0.36 degrees above what it normally is which can cause many effects on the reef. “The reef is dead,” she said. She spotted two types of algae that have choked and killed the coral that once flourished. The skeletons of the coral remain, but they are lifeless. From this, many fish species have been on the decline, in both quantity and quality. There was once two-foot long fish in this reef, but now it is difficult to see fish that are half the size. She could not believe the devastation that had happened since she last visited within the last year.
She mentioned that she must speak to the community and other researchers about it, and she wonders if a coral bleaching event has been happening without their knowledge. Many corporations pay in order to pollute which does not solve many issues as these payments are usually seen as loans. Due to the long history of this reef, there is evidence that this ecosystem will bounce-back and continue to promote local biodiversity with a healthy reef.
Our day began with a heavy downpour over Ollei– a few students out on a morning paddle got caught in the rain, and came back to a small flash flood around the Ebiil buildings! However, the rain was soon followed by a beautiful and calm morning, rainbow included.
After a nourishing breakfast (and caffeine) to start our day, we began our drive to the Cooperative Research & Extension Aquaculture Facility, where we met with staff to tour the hatchery and learn more about aquaculture in Palau. First, we got an overview of aquaculture’s ancient history and importance– these practices began as long ago as 5000 B.C., and held an importance as a sustaining food source. Today, it can be used as a method to replenish degraded populations, as well as to prevent over-harvesting of other marine systems. With extensive experience and knowledge in the field of aquaculture and fisheries, the manager helped provide us with new perspectives on hatchery management and the incorporation of hatcheries into Palauan communities.
The facility itself, founded decades ago, has since fallen into disrepair and is no longer fully functional. For example, all of the facility’s raceways were painted with exterior-only epoxy paint, which leaches into the tanks and kills the fish they contain. The epoxy painted concrete raceways cannot be used until completely stripped of epoxy and repainted, with an estimated price tag of $75,000. Our visit prompted extensive group discussion about the future of the hatchery, its goals, and its long term success. Currently, the manager is applying for grants and meeting with Japanese government representatives to improve the hatchery’s production capacity and hire a team of staff to manage it. Though students are skeptical about its long term success, we hope that the facility’s conditions improve and the community becomes more involved with hatchery operations.
For lunch we had arrangements at an oceanside cafe. We were served fresh poke, fish fingers, rice, pad Thai, and tempura fried vegetables. After a full meal and refreshing drinks, we spent a few minutes in the water before driving to our next site.
We made a stop at Mesekelet Conservation Area where we hiked down to a waterfall and cooled off in the pools. The deepest pool was about 8ft deep with a waterfall on the upstream side making it a favorite spot for most students. On our hike back up to the vans, we discovered that the concrete stairs and trail surface were dated to 06/13/2022, just a week prior to our visit!
After swimming in Mesekelet Falls, we drove up to meet Jack Lin at the Palau National Aquaculture Center. The stark contrast of this facility with the facility we toured earlier in the morning was evident to all of the students. Jack started our tour by showing us the lab where he works. He was able to show us various life stages of sea cucumbers under the microscope and how to tell when to move eggs, larvae, or juveniles to different tanks in the hatchery. Jack also led us through the clam, giant clam, and sea cucumber stocks. He described each species, how they are managed, and their use and importance in the community. Once these species are grown to a suitable size, they are distributed to different communities throughout Palau to help support sustainable fisheries management.
Staff members from the Taiwan Technical Mission led us through the rest of the hatchery and showed us rabbitfish, tiger shrimp, milk fish, and others. Staff fed some of the fish which gave us a great view, especially in some of the deeper tanks. There were even two sea turtles (one hawksbill and one green), being held in rehabilitation tanks until they are healthy enough to be released back into the ocean.
We all agreed that this hatchery is really well run, clean, and has knowledgeable staff. It even has a beautiful view of the ocean and surrounding islands. Most students really enjoyed this location and gave even more of a perspective on the aquaculture industry. Some students even commented that they would love to intern at this location.
We ended our night with a trip to the Koror night market where we sampled food from local vendors. After eating and enjoying live music, we sat under the bridge and watched the sunset until we drove back to Camp Ebiil.
Day 5 started off nice and early with two very informative lectures; one from Ann discussing gender and resources and one from Jack, a fisheries scientist working with the Ebiil Society on restoring sea cucumber populations. Ann covered the difference between what men and women traditionally gathered and fished. Traditionally, men have been assigned the roles of managing and fishing for larger fin fish species that exist further off the shore (using methods such as spear fishing, trolling and net use), while women often managed and foraged fisheries such as clams and sea cucumbers in shallow water sites, a process known as gleaning. The takeaway from Ann’s presentation was the importance of working with nature rather than against it.
Jack’s presentation focused on his own work of study in the field and laboratory. Jack explained the individual needs of developing sea cucumbers and the numerous factors that need to be considered when raising and planting the juveniles, such as timing of the tides and moon cycles.
With tide timing in mind, we set out to the nearby sea grass beds after both presentations. Led by Ime, a team member of the cucumber restoration project, we set up multiple transect lines to record sea grass species diversity and the overall amount of sea grass percentage. We also noted any sea cucumbers we found along the way.
After walking back, Mekatl Blaiyok, a Palauan traditional healer spoke with us about her practices with native plants and how the loss of Palauan land to development negatively affected said practices. Most of her knowledge she kept to herself since healers only shared the details of their practice to their apprentice, however, she did share the name of some key plants that can be used in a variety of different ways, especially in traditional first birth ceremonies. As we waited for the tides to come in for the replanting of the sea cucumbers, we had a lunch of yogurt fruit salad and sea cucumber with lime and soy sauce while enjoying the exceptionally sunny clear skies. Around sunset the water was finally high enough for us to take out the paddle boards and sea cucumber juveniles, and head back to the sea grass beds. Planting from the same transects we had set up earlier, we placed hand fulls of nail sized cucumbers in the bunches of sea grass and made our way back to the dock.
Immediately after breakfast we loaded up the truck with over 100 native plants grown by the Ebil Society. These plants consisted of; kisaks, ukall, las, blacheos, btaches and rebotel. All plants are either grown from seed or cuttings at the Camp Ebiil greenhouse.
After loading the plants, we drove to meet the Ebiil Society Staff at the bauxite mines in Ngardmau. Prior to WWII, the Empire of Japan began mining for Bauxite ore (used to make Aluminum), which caused severe deforestation and soil degradation. This left the area eroded, bare, and infertile, making the terraced hillsides the subject of restoration efforts.
Misinterpreting the directions to the planting site, we had the pleasure of our very own jungle adventure. We forged our own trail through the dense vegetation of a ravine. Despite the detour, we were grateful for the experience, ultimately discovering the remains of a boxcar system and coming out at the planting site covered in orange mud.
Reaching the planting site, we found the Ebiil Society staff ready with all of the saplings and planting supplies. Prior to our arrival, they had dug holes in a grid pattern across six different plots. We were provided a demonstration on the planting technique. The first step was to add a base layer of mulch, an organic compost mixture produced by the Ebiil Society, in the bottom of the hole. Next, we carefully removed the plant from the growing container and placed it on top of the mulch layer, trying to keep the roots intact. Then, we filled the rest of the hole with mulch and surrounding soil. Once the saplings were in the ground we placed coconut husks around the base in order to reduce competition and provide slowly released nutrients. After a plot was completely planted, we placed palm fronds between rows of plants perpendicular to the slope. This helps to slow the corresponding flow of water during rain events, helping reduce erosion and increase uptake of water by the new plantings.
After we finished planting and had a lunch break, we traveled over to the nearby watershed that consisted of a stream that led to several pools of water and into a waterfall. We all enjoyed this refreshing water after a hard day’s work in the hot sun. Many of us sat in the pools, washing off the mud we had gained from our earlier excursion and admiring the freshwater shrimp.
Later on, some of us went to enjoy the sunset from a nearby lighthouse built by the Japanese, which, with the help of WWII destruction, has since degraded. There, we asked questions about the northern islands of Palau and the local dugong populations. After a delicious dinner, we enjoyed each other’s’ company, talking and laughing into the lightless hours.
Our day started with the majority of us waking up right around 5:30 to experience the calm sunrise, full of anticipation for the day ahead. Around 8:00 we made our way to the boat ramp where we met the fishermen who would be taking us on their boats. Before heading out we had an introduction on how to handline, something most of us had never done before. We split our group into the two boats and motored out about a mile into the reef, only to discover we had forgotten the weights for the handlines. Luckily we were rescued by the Ngarchelong State Rangers who delivered us with plenty of weights. Before we even got a line in the water we noticed a Hawksbill Sea Turtle not too far from the boat.
We baited our hooks, and dropped them to about 90 feet. Before any luck on our lines, the first fish of the day jumped straight into one of the boats! It only took a couple of minutes before the first tug on the line. Jen had the distinction of catching the first fish, and we all watched with anticipation to see what she was going to pull in. As it approached the surface we saw its dark orange color, and after getting it in the boat, it was identified as an Emperor. No one could wipe the smile from their face, and before long, others started hooking into fish.
We only had a couple of hours to spend on the water, but quickly, we found ourselves with a cooler full of 13 fish. There were a couple of fish that had to be released; Allie caught an amazing 2 ½ foot Shark Sucker, Jake caught a small Camouflage Grouper as well as a massive chunk of coral. The fish that were kept included multiple species of Emperor, Sabre Squirrelfish, Red Snapper, Midnight Snapper, and a Black Banded Snapper.
We headed back to land around 11:00, and met around the fish cleaning station for a lesson by the fishing guides who took us on the water. We learned about the digital fish measuring system which collects data of fish caught to be used for research by The Nature Conservancy, helping to monitor the status of the species in the area. We also had a discussion on other methods of determining fisheries health.
It was now time to get our hands dirty! We broke out the scalers to remove the scales from our fish, followed by gutting. Cleaning our own fish allowed us to gain a deeper appreciation for these animals, and made our dinner that much tastier. After cleaning up the station, we gathered up our fish and headed back for some much needed lunch.
Lunch consisted of fried chicken, fresh apples and oranges, rice and taro. After fueling up, we journeyed over the hill to a taro field where we met with Ann Singeo and Rose, a mechas who has spent many years working in the taro fields. She graciously shared her wealth of knowledge, and invited us to join her in her taro patch. Carefully making our way through the muddy paths created by the irrigation channels, we circled the taro patch and the women were instructed in how to harvest the taro. Gender roles restrict men from working the fields, as they have always been managed by women. It was an incredible privilege for the men in our group to be allowed to even step foot in the field. While the women harvested taro, the men observed the diversity in the field and the intentionality in the surrounding forest which was cultivated with the community, and children especially, in mind. The taro fields are traditionally very communal, with the women sharing labor and coming together to work and support each other. Great importance is placed on introducing younger generations, and encouraging young women in continuing the culture.
One aspect of the taro fields we greatly admired is the irrigation system and the methods used to ensure equal access to water. There is a main irrigation channel surrounding the field, which is diverted and returned to the river; each taro patch is surrounded by channels which also act as safe walkways to prevent harming the young taro plants. Taro requires a specific amount of saturation to cultivate the highest quality taro. Too much water can cause rotting, too little and it will dry out and most likely won’t survive. Many times, the woman chief would have her patch at the bottom corner of the field to regulate water use. If the chief’s patch was not receiving adequate water, she would ask the women, “where’s my water?” and they would all work to fix the issue to avoid getting penalized. In this way, she ensures equality in access to resources.
Before leaving the taro field, we walked around the perimeter to take it all in one last time. We walked back to Ebiil Society where we were instructed on how to scrape the taro and prepare it for our dinner that night.
Afterwards, we enjoyed some free time. Some of us chose to snorkel, others paddle boarded to the mangrove forests, and a few enjoyed some much needed rest. We gathered for dinner, and enjoyed the fruits of our labor. The fish we caught was served with a delicious sauce, and the taro was cooked in coconut milk. They also provided rice, fried taro leaves, and a sweet tapioca dessert.
The evening ended with an opportunity to talk about fisheries management with traditional fishing expert Tino. Ann provided some context for his lifelong experiences with the ocean and fishing, sharing stories about his passion for the marine environment and conveying his extensive knowledge of Palau’s marine systems. We were able to ask any questions we had and to have an open conversation about changes to the fisheries over time, conservation, policies, and the challenges in management they are working to address. He ended the conversation by extending an open invitation to reach out to him at any time during our stay with any other questions we may have, and an offer to share his knowledge of Palau’s marine life.
It had been a long and eventful day full of new experiences, and though it had been a great time, our energy had run out. After Tino left, we all quickly found our beds, hoping to get plenty of rest and prepare ourselves for the next day’s adventures.
Day 2 in Palau began early at 7:00 am. We all piled into the vans prepared to go sit in on a traditional leaders conference back in Koror. However about an hour into the drive Bryan got the text that the chiefs had closed the conference to an outside audience. We pulled over under a bridge to reconvene while Bryan and Ann Singeo came up with plan B–taking a boat out to Ngereklau island to learn about coral reefs, invasive species and more–after which we took a trip into Koror to grab some breakfast at the local grocery stores.
We ate some delicious food during our trip back to the Ebiil Society, and dropped a hefty sum for some expensive gas along the way. Upon arriving at the Ebiil Society, we learned that plan B would no longer be an option. Because it was a full moon, the tide was too low for our boat trip to the island, so we settled for plan C–to freely explore the area. A majority of us decided on snorkeling, so we grabbed our gear and headed out to the docks directly down the road from the Ebiil Society.
Once out in the water, it became clear that the visibility wasn’t conducive for a great snorkeling experience. With the tide so low and the water so cloudy, corals became a hazard for experienced and new swimmers alike. Despite this, the day was beautiful and occasionally a bright fish would pop out from the murky depths.
After about an hour snorkeling around near the docks, we came back to enjoy a lunch of marlin burgers and veggie wraps. Another plan was set in motion soon after, when we discovered that the Ebiil Society had 10+ paddle boards and 2 kayaks for a trip out on the water. A lot of sweat and a popped board later, we were ready to take off. Two groups were formed; one that went to see the mangroves, and another that left to find a sunken WW2 Japanese plane.
Three hours, mosquito bites, sunburns, and a broken oar later, we all made it back for a fantastic dinner of marlin steak, tapioca, pumpkin, rice, chicken soup and vegetable stir fry. We wrapped up the day with a little reflection time, where we talked about how the trip was going so far and played a getting to know each other game called NACHO’s. Each person spoke about things they were either appreciative of, concerned about, or proud of based on their experiences so far on the trip.
Exhausted after another busy day we all called it a night at around 9:00pm, ready to enjoy the activities waiting for us tomorrow.
Day 1 in Palau began with a trip to the Belau National Museum (BNM). We were excited to learn about Palauan culture, history, and art. BNM taught us that Palau has a diverse history influenced by western Europe, eastern Asia, and Melanesian traders, colonists, and voyagers. This has resulted in an extremely beautiful country with very unique traditions, customs, and politics.
After our trip to BNM, we enjoyed a bento lunch of teriyaki beef, pork, fried chicken, fried rice, and the most delicious bananas on the planet, provided by a local restaurant, Yano and Son’s. When lunch was over, we departed for the island of Babeldaob. Along the way, we stopped at Ngardmau Falls, a former Japanese bauxite mining site. We followed the rail tracks to beautiful natural water slides and pools. Continuing the trail through the jungle, we were refreshed by a sudden rain storm. At the end of the trail, we waded under Ngardmau Fall, enjoying the cool water before our long trek up over 500 stairs.
Upon our arrival in the fishing hamlet of Ollei, we were delighted to learn we would be hosted by the Ebiil Society on a scenic oceanfront. After settling in, the Ebiil Society staff provided us with our evening repast, a dinner of fried marlin, marlin poke, stir fry noodles, coconut milk taro, tofu salad, and rice. Many of us realized for the first time how incredible fresh fish could be, despite life long aversions to seafood.
Later, we met in the classroom to discuss plans for our week in Ollei, and have a formal introduction to Anne Singeo, the executive director of the Ebiil Society. She spoke passionately about marine management, the opportunities we have here as students, and the village’s eagerness to share their knowledge about fishing and resource management over the coming days.
Exhausted and well fed, we turned in early to prepare for our next day of adventure in Palau.
Our time on the Ridge to Reef Study Abroad has come to an end. The 2019 Cohort wants to communicate our gratitude and appreciation to our faculty leads, community partners, Palau Community College and Palau High School Students, and the Palauan Community.
A special thanks to Ebiil Society, Ann Singeo, Elchung Gladys, Ilima Kloulechad, Patricia Kloulechad, Roseberry Kinto, Francisca Blesoch. Our time at Ebiil Society was eye-opening, memorable, and life altering. We will forever hold a special place in our hearts for Ebiil and those we met there.
Palau Community College (PCC), PAIR Program, and Dr. Chris Kitalong. Thank you for sharing your research and labs with us. With your support, our time in Koror has been enriching. It was an honor to participate in the thatching process for the Bai at PCC. Best of luck at the National Institute of Health Conference this week.
Thank you to the PCC and Palau High School students: Raimunt, Junior, Jose, Kobe, Ya-Ya, Bubbles, Mederang, and Mereng, Lus, and Jesse. We really appreciate how you all took us in and taught us about your culture and country. You all gave us an opportunity to learn more about Palau that we couldn’t otherwise have experienced. We hope you all continue to pursue your passions.
To our faculty leads, Bryan Endress and Scott Heppell, thank you for facilitating such and incredible program. Your guidance has given us new perspectives that we will take forward into our education, careers, and life.
Sofia Baum, Business Administration and Sustainability, Graduating Spring 2020
We started our day bright (well sort of bright) and early by rolling out the door at 7:15am in route to Rock Islands Kayak Expeditions for a full day of kayaking Risong Bay. Arriving hopeful with peeks of blue sky (with mostly solid wind and rain in the forecast) we pulled into our kayak tour company’s lot to meet our guides and start the day.
However, we were so thankful that massive gust and rain passed relatively quickly. We got a break in the storm and took our chance to venture out to sea to continue our kayak day with Mack, Kobe, and Jeff with RIKE.
After getting a peek of the bay and water that we’d be spending the day in, our guides took us to an undisclosed local lake within the bay to see more jellyfish. This location is not open for tourists. There were not as many jellyfish in the lake in comparison to the other lake we went to a few days ago, but we were pleased to get out of the boat and check it out!
After our many muscles were so from paddling, swimming, and such we headed back home with a quick boat ride and current float to hopefully see Lolita, the Manta Ray coming in with the current. No such luck there, but we did manage to see a couple massive Cuttle Fish!
We cleaned up ourselves and stuff and went to meet Ann from the Ebiil Society for a final goodbye and thank you dinner. After stopping at several restaurants with no luck or room for our large group, we got lucky at The Carp. Big portions, low prices, and great company! What a wonderful way to wrap it all up.
We had a long day of kayaking, with cool but sunny weather, seeking out new things to be seen. Pleased (and exhausted) with our kayak adventures and last snorkel here in Palau, we had a lovely sit down with Ann, her kind husband, her patient daughter, and a bonus El (from Ebiil). We were coming to realization that our time here is just about over. Sentimentals soon coming, but attempting to save them for tomorrow.
The PCC crew had reached out and wanted to have an evening out with us and talked us into at first what we thought to be Karaoke, then a local Palauan band (then to find out only a DJ playing ‘eh’ American music). Only Sofia and Katherine were set on going, but capably talked the rest of the crew into joining as it was many of our last nights in Palau. Upon arrival, the dance floor was bare. We tightened down our sandals, sipped our waters, and got the party started. Twas a good ol’ time laughing, dancing, and enjoying our last night together. We were thankful that El and Kobe joined us, however having it not be Palauan music, they were there to enjoy the scene at a further distance. Upon departure, the music floor became bare once more and we thanked the Taj staff for a pleasurable evening and headed back to the Dreamhouse.. to do just that.. dream.
Destiny Pauls, Natural Resources- Conservation Law Enforcement, Class of Spring 2021
Day 12 on Palau consisted of snorkeling, stone money, and ethnobotany! We headed out on a boat to patch reefs outside Koror. After snorkeling for about 20 minutes, we had to pack up and head to a different location because the sea was becoming too rough. (Rumor has it that a typhoon is developing over Yap, a small island near Palau, and headed this way.)
After snorkeling, we hiked up the Balang trail where people from Yap used to travel to harvest Aragonite, a type of stone only found on Palau, to make their stone money. Stone money pieces are huge (sometimes up to 12 feet in circumference) donut -shaped slabs used as women’s currency in Yapese culture. One of these slabs was left on the island after being cut and sculpted because it was broken during the moving process and therefore worthless.
After hiking the Balang trail, we snorkeled in the reef right off the quarry. Within the Rock Islands, the water is more protected from storms and was much more calm than our previous snorkel that day. During this snorkel, we saw some human-made trash, unfortunately. Even in remote areas like Palau, plastics and littering are still an issue for marine and terrestrial life. Our team picked up around 20 pieces of trash from just that one snorkel site. It can be easy to disassociate yourself from your garbage when you don’t have to witness what happens with it afterwards. However, seeing the plastic bags and Coke cans on the bottom of the ocean floor, with fish swimming in and out of them can be eye-opening. The FW 391 gang would like to remind you to Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle!
One of the discoveries made on this snorkel trip was a wild Day Octopus, pictured at the beginning of this blog. Student Tate originally found this octopus hiding in a hole in a mound of coral. As the octopus moved to different parts of the coral, its body shape, texture, and color would change to match its background. If you took your eye off of it, you would probably never find it again.
After leaving the snorkel site near the Balang trail, a storm hit the ocean. Intense, cold rain poured down on the gang and we had to get creative.
The day ended with a lecture in ethnobotany by Dr. Chistopher Kitalong. His research focused on using traditional Palauan plants as medicine to help treat diabetes on the island. He discovered that the traditional ways are more effective for treating the islanders than the modern Western medicine.
All in all, it was successful day! We are very grateful to our boat captain for navigating us through the storm, our instructors for their insight and advice, the PCC students and Dr. Kitalong for allowing us to sit in on their lecture, and to all of Palau for granting us a 12th day on this beautiful island.
Simone Burton, Oregon State University, Marine Biology major, Graduating June 2021
Katherine Healy, Oregon State University, Women and Gender Studies
Today we headed out to the state of Melekeok to see the largest lake in Micronesia! We met with some of the park rangers who were there to tell us about the creation of the park. In 1997 it was made the first terrestrial protected area in Palau.
Some of the land had received damage in World War 2 and burning from people in the local area is creating large savannahs that experience high amounts of erosion and sediment runoff. The state rangers are working to replant these areas to slow the rate of erosion.
Along the trail we stopped to find a carnivorous plant called the Sundew. It traps insects with a sticky sap that it produces.
The rangers allowed us to plant some trees in one of the areas where they are trying to reforest.
On their way out the PCC students noticed that one of their tires was flat. With the help of the park rangers they were able to get it fixed in no-time!
After Lake Ngardok we visited an area to snorkel but we discovered it was low tide during a new moon which was making the tide even lower than normal. We decided to do some Palauan tide pooling instead.
After the tide pools we went back to PCC to help build more segments for the roof for the traditional Bai.
Savannah Hesidence (Oregon State University, Marine Biology and Environmental Sciences major, Graduating Spring 2022)
The tenth day of the class began with a brief visit to the Coral Reef Research Foundation (CRRF) to listen to a presentation on the impacts of climate change on the islands of Palau by Dr. Pat Colin.
After the presentation, we headed to the Palau International Coral Reef Center where we hopped on a boat and went on a bumpy 30 minute ride to Jellyfish Lake.
Once we arrived at the lake, a bit beaten and battered from the boat ride, Gerda Ucharm, a research biologist for CRRF, gave us a brief overview of what we would see in the lake and the life cycle of their world famous jellyfish.
Once everyone was ready and had their snorkel gear on, we jumped in the water and were greeted by the most amazing scene we had ever seen.
Jellyfish are not, however, the only residents of the lake. There are also a few endemic species of fish and anemones, of which, three are pictured below.
After snorkeling Jellyfish Lake for about an hour, we went and had lunch on a nearby beach and then went for a short snorkel.
After we returned to dry land, we headed over to Palau Community College (PCC) where we learned how to weave palm fronds into pallets to be used on the roof of a traditional bai, or men’s meeting house. According to the president of PCC, they need approximately 2,000 pallets to cover the roof (I was only able to make two in an hour).
After working up a big appetite making pallets, we ended our evening at the Rock Island Cafe where we had pizza, pasta, burritos, and sundaes.
Dylan Heppell, Environmental Sciences, Class of 2022
As we start our time back in Koror, some of us are relieved for a mellower day (healing sunburns and staying mostly dry) indoors attending presentations by the Palau Conservation Society, the Palau Community College’s PAIR high school students, the Palau National Marine Sanctuary, and the Division of Marine Law Enforcement.
We arrived at the Palau Community College around 8:30am to listen to a couple of the PAIR high school students present their research and get some feedback before they leave to present in Washington DC at the National Institute of Health Conference. In preparation to hearing them, Chris Kitalong was happy to fill the time gap with personal history and research of his actions in Palau, with the college, and with his own experiences and research. He is a Palauan scientist whom leads the PAIR program and guides local youth to be involved and learn about their community from a science perspective.
After some technical difficulties, we were able to view the Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle poster and learn briefly about some of the research on the effects it’s having here in Palau with the coconut trees. Quick description includes: The beetles have been found to be killing the coconut tree (a very resourceful plant here in Palau) in the Pacific islands, with Guam no longer having the tree and Hawaii losing it’s population quickly. Research shows that in the lower populated areas of the Palauan islands have less tree damage ,while the areas that clear vegetation for building have more tree damage due to having more downed trees for beetle reproduction areas. These CRBs (Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle) have been narrowed down to two types with one type being susceptible to a virus that kills them after injection and release back into the vegetation. The research is very important to preventing the future death of the coconut tree and Ya-Ya will be presenting this in Washington DC next week.
After our quick morning at PCC, we arranged to come back later in the afternoon to view the rest of the presentations and provide feedback. We hopped in the vans for a drive over to the Palau Conservation Society to meet with the executive director- Abolade (Bola) Majekobaje, project coordinator- Bernie Besebes, and John, the once Protected Areas Network Coordinator and law enforcement ranger and now legislator and PCS program coordinator.
They provided such fun and interpretive materials with their conservation work with the locals nationally. As well as explained some of their neat international partnerships working to improve and conserve Palau for future generations. Check out the video below for a fun way of seeing some of the successful projects come to life!
Pictured above is the Okeanos Sailboat in the port that some of the PCC students sailed on during their recent research of the Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle damage on southern islands. Be sure to check out the rad (once Australian Navy) boat the Marine Patrol now uses behind it!
Elsei Tellei with the Palau National Marine Sanctuary provided a wonderful presentation of the PNMS work within Palau and the Marine law enforcement. Covering the importance in topics such as the fisheries, food security, education, tourism, and even some of the fishing laws in place and ones that will soon take effect.
After an engaging discussion and view of the patrol boats and surveillance room with the PNMS folks, we headed back to PCC for more student presentations and possible Bai roof help work.
That just about wraps up our long day of classroom like sessions. Dinner, leftovers, and homework ends the evening splendidly. Jellyfish Lake tomorrow and we can’t wait for more snorkel adventures. Until next time.. 🙂
Destiny Pauls, Natural Resources- Conservation Law Enforcement, Class of Spring 2021
Today was our day off from regular class activities. The group split up and went to do various activities around Palau. Destiny, Dylan, and Scott went diving with Sam’s Tours; below are some of the photos taken on their dive trip.
After our first dive, we went to a beautiful secluded beach for lunch.
For our second dive, we visited Ngerchong Reef, a slow sloping reef still recovering from a typhoon that came through six years ago.
Once we were finished diving, we visited a few souvenir shops, got some coffee, and then ended the evening at burger shack.
The remaining members of the class spent the day visiting PCC, going souvenir shopping, swimming in a freshwater creek, and snorkeling near a reef. We started off the day at Palau’s community college in Koror to visit their rhinoceros beetle lab.
After the lab we wandered around Koror visiting local souvenir shops and eating at a local coffee shop. While at the coffee shop we happened to see Pia Mia, a famous singer from Guam. We then traveled to a swimming hole that is a favorite among Palauan high schoolers.
After the freshwater creek we decided to go snorkeling.
We ended in the evening at a local Vietnamese restaurant before returning home.
After a once in a lifetime experience staying in Ollei we have sadly come to the end of time with the Ebiil Society. The schedule for our last day consisted of looking for the Sea Cucumbers (Curryfish) we had tagged prior, and snorkeling through the mangroves. We set out across the sea grass at low tide this morning and after multiple transects found 21 total Curryfish, eight of which were tagged. We also found many crabs, jellyfish, as well as many different fish species, some of which are endemic to Palau.
After finishing the transects, unfortunately the tide was too low to snorkel in the mangroves; instead we ventured out past the sea grass to the reef for a snorkel. We encountered many different species of fish, clams, nudibranchs as well a Japanese plane that was shot down during World War II.
After returning back to camp, we enjoyed our last lunch at the Ebiil Society. It included the fish we had personally caught. We also had the opportunity to drink fresh coconuts. Saying goodbye to all the staff and teachers was emotional. We are so grateful for the time we were able to spend with them and for everything they taught us.
Starting the day with a morning boat trip to Ebiil Channel. Ebiil Channel is a marine protected site in the northern part of Palau established in 2000. It’s an important site for the spawning of Bumphead Parrotfish.
Picture below are some of the interesting animals we encountered on our snorkeling adventure
After lunch we headed to a local taro patch where we learned about its traditional significance. An elder of the village taught us about farming techniques and the importance of the keeping the tradition.
We put coconut oil onto our arms and legs to prevent irritation from the taro plants. While we were doing this, we talked about legends associated with the taro patches. One of the legends created a rule where if you forget something at the field, you do not return for it. This was created from a tale of a woman returning to the field for something she forgot and found the field had turned into a lake.
Some of the rules that are followed in the taro patch are that women are the only ones who take care of taro and that you are only allowed to walk in the irrigation path ways. It was believed that not walking in the water ways would curse you or curse the plants.
A traditional field has three different purposes. One part of the field was partitioned for the elder man of the family, one part was partitioned for customs which were funerals and first birth ceremonies, and one part of the field was partitioned for the community and those who didn’t have food.
We were listening to the elder, Ulang, seated on the right, about the history of the field. She said the field had been there since the beginning and that her mother planted in the field and her mother’s mother had planted in the field.
Junior Yalap ( Palau High School, Auto mechanic major, Graduating Spring 2021, Pacific Academic Institute for Research)
Savannah Hesidence (Oregon State University, Marine Biology and Environmental Sciences major, Graduating Spring 2022)
For our fifth day in Palau, we hopped on a boat and headed to the outside of Ebiil Channel. The group used bottom line fishing (a hook with bait attached to a line with weight, coiled around a spool, is dropped into the water until it reaches near the bottom).
With this tool, the group starting catching fish left and right! Tate, an OSU student, had a bite on the first drop of the day. The group caught 15 fish, but had to throw 3 back because of size limits and 2 groupers because they are not in season.
About an hour and a half in, rain started heavily pouring down. We quickly reeled in our hand lines and headed back to the Ollei port. The rain was so heavy that you could not see 10 feet in front of you, much less the islands that are supposed to guide fishermen back to port. The team did not lose motivation in the storm, however. Most of us were all smiles and singing songs.
After rounding up all the fish we had caught, Tino, captain of the boat, showed us how to measure each fish, differentiate between the males and females, and record the data.
Each student had a turn to scale the fish with fish scalers provided by the fishermen at the port. Starting at the tail, while holding the head, students remove the scales using the fish scaler to prepare it for eating.
After cleaning the fish, we sat down with the local fishermen elders (including Chief Rteruich Katsusi of Ollei) to discuss the issues the fishermen face today with the changes in tourism, culture, and everyday life.
In the evening, the Oregon State University students were invited to a celebration of the Todai (lighthouse) in the village of Ollei. The evening consisted of touring the remains of the lighthouse built by Palauans under control of the Japanese administration during World War II. The remains of the Todai showed bullet holes and had remnants of Japanese hand grenades within the foliage from when the Japanese fought the Americans during a battle.
We were then given a dinner of fish, clams, fruit (including dragonfruit), tapioca, and taro. The evening concluded when the local girls of Ollei performed a contemporary dance (the name for the traditional Palauan dance).
“Ng meral mle ungil a sils er kemam.” (Palauan for “We had a very good day!”)
Simone Burton (Oregon State University, Marine biology major, Graduating Spring 2021)
Raimunt Mesubed (Palau High School and Pacific Academic Institute of Research (PAIR))
Our second day at The Ebiil Society we had plans to go to a nearby island and learn about various animals and archaeological history. We met early to discuss and learn about the basics of calculating population density before departing from the local port to the Island of Ngerkeklau to perform transects on the eastern side of the island to determine the population densities of the Curryfish (Ngimes) and Lollyfish (Chouas). After 12 transects we calculated the results and determined there are approximately 0.85 Curryfish (Ngimes) per square meter and 0.12 Lollyfish (Chouas) per square meter. After the transects we took a short break for lunch.
Following lunch we alongside Palau Community College Students and the Pacific Academic Institute for Research had the chance to learn the methods of turtle monitoring and megapode nesting by Joshua Eberdong and Ann Singeo of The Ebiil Society.
We continued to hike along the Island and began to wind our way inland on trails made by the first inhabitants 800 years ago. We found old pieces of pottery and tools that they used as well as coral walls they had built.
The trails led around the island back to the summer house that we used as our home base for the day, we regrouped and packed up before getting back in the water to collect Curryfish for tagging and transport.
The group headed to the western side of the island and gathered Curryfish before departing back to Ollei for tagging and outplant near the local dock.
We tagged the Curryfish at the local dock to determine populations estimates and how long they stay in a certain location. Following the tagging of the Curryfish we took them to a set location just south of the local port, with that we came across the carcass of a sperm whale.
After we finished putting the Curryfish back we returned to The Ebiil Society to find our dinner being processed. Sam, Ann’s husband had caught a Yellow Fin Tuna and was cutting it into steaks. It made a delicious fish soup and tuna steaks. After a long yet successful day and a wonderful dinner we are looking forward to tomorrows adventure learning about fisheries in Palau.