Describe the process of peer review to someone who does not frequently read scientific articles. In your response, consider the pros and cons of peer review and how that might impact the credibility of the results that come from that scientific article.
Peer review is a process that ensures new research is valid. Authors submit their work to an editor who examines their work and evaluates it based on originality, quality, and validity. There are two types of reviews: single-blind reviews, and double-blind reviews.
Most of the reviews of single-blind, which is when the author does not know the name of the peer reviewer. The benefit of a single-blind is the author cannot use their influence or power to alter the peer review process. The downside of this style is it does not protect the author’s identity.
Double-blind reviews are the minority. This is when both the author and the peer reviewer are anonymous. This protect the author by removing bias towards them.
The benefit of peer review is that the work is validated. It also allows for the regulation of what is being published. They also provide valuable feedback to authors.
The downside to peer review is that the process takes too long. This slows down the research process, and ultimately the distribution of important information to those that need it. Another con is publication and peer review can be largely political. There are arguments that publications are much more successful for authors who have an “in” with the editor.