Early/Other Instruction Models
- Madeline Hunter model: 7 Step Lesson Plan:
- anticipatory set
- check for understanding
- guided practice/monitoring
- independent practice
- Heinich & Molenda: ASSURE Model
- Analyze learners
- State objectives
- Select instructional methods, media, and materials
- Utilize media and materials
- Require learner participation
- Evaluate and revise
- Both good models for new teachers who are learning their way around the classroom. Is there another way? Yes, this one.
- Modified from Newell (1986), which was initially a discussion about motor development, moved to learning skills, called it a “model of constraints.”
- These 3 systems interact: you change one thing and it changes the system– not all 3 have to change for the system to change. This is in opposition to the motor skills development theory.
- Individual: you bring what you are: skills, body, intelligence
- Environment: physical arrangement, equipment
- Task: what are you/they trying to do?
- Outcome: the system will achieve a steady state, will emerge from the interaction. The system struggles with chaos, but it will resolve itself.
- How can you change the constraints of an individual? Model different behavior, give them information, engage them immediately and pique their interest, motivate. Conditioning happens over time. Are they being graded?
- How can you change the structure of the environment? Layout of classroom/room, surface stability, environmental level of predictability (static/dynamic), grouping people based on task.
- How can you change the task? Motor skills theory related (change speed trajectory of movement), equipment (type, length, size, weight, texture, etc.), c complexity/simplicity, options.
- Research is a dynamic activity
- What decisions do people make when they do research?
- What knowledge do they need to have to use research tools?
- What skills do they need to have efficiently use tools?
- Are poor choices and/or a lack of knowledge/skills okay? Who says it’s a poor choice? It’s only poor if we/faculty says it is. They have to be given choices.
- Manipulating Outcome: what are the desired behaviors? How does discovery learning fit into the classroom?
- Make sure there are choices wherever they are rather than a sequence of events or stations.
- The purpose is giving them experiences. Learning retained.
- Warnings: you can lose them with a lot of instruction, lose them with a complex first task. Make sure you increase the complexity with each task. However, if this is an entirely new skill or new subject matter, don’t be afraid to give them instruction (though if you can make it dynamic, do).
Dynamic Systems Teaching Model
- Establish the task goal: structure the environment, give information about the task, do not demonstrate (but you can provide instructional support).
- Provide choices: one size doesn’t fit all, have a selection of skills/movements/equipment available, allow safe student decisions. Get them to looks at the choices and the outcomes. Give them feedback about the choices they have made/are making. Ask “what do you notice when you ___?”
- Modify the variable: “restructure” the environment for the group and the individuals who are ready.
- Provide instruction: only after the first 3 steps, instruct about skills students have selected, instruct about “teacher preferred” skills.
Example: Use good keywords
- Research task: Ask them to search for something/an article, may not discuss specific results.
- Restructure task: Ask them to find a synonym, repeat their search multiple times.
Example: Use varied databases
- Research task: ask them to find an article in a database, do not set any limiters. If they ask, you can define “scholarly source.”
- Restructure task: ask them to explore the advanced search page for limiters (ie specific journals). Give them different databases to use to search for scholarly sources. Ask them to compare magazine to scholarly journals.
Example of lesson plan for one-shot instruction session (library focus)
Visit the Wikipedia current events section for topics that are very recent and from the past couple of months.
- Give students a topic and ask them to find a relevant/suitable article (don’t limit or define your terms here, let them explore & come back with anything).
- Discuss with the students/instructor to see what they define as “suitable.”
- Ask the student to find articles with as much bibliographic information as possible, from a variety of sources.
- Discuss the difference between broadcast & print, how important permanence is in academia. Search for print sources in databases, tell them they have to use certain databases (ie Lexis/Nexis, EBSCO).
- Where did you find more?
- Discuss the publication cycle and how it is not suitable for very current events (periodical database isn’t going to provide you with articles if the event happened yesterday.
- Ask them to “experience” different databases.
How can archivists use this? Tiah’s Dynamic Systems lesson planning model
- Task 1: Research w/o constraints. “Find something in the yearbooks that is interesting to you.”
- Discussion outcomes: “What did you find? Why was it interesting?”
- Task 2: Research with some constraints (change the task/environment): “Look at another yearbook that is at least 20 years older or 20 years more recent than your first choice.”
- Discussion outcomes: “What differences did you notice?”
- Task 3: Research with more constraints (change the task/environment): “Look at another yearbook that is at least 20 years older or 20 years more recent than your first or second choices. This time look for a similar topic or subject.”
- Discussion outcomes: “What did you find?” “What differences did you notice?”
- Task 4: Research with more constraints (change the task/environment): Give them a set of photographs and ask them to discuss what they see. Ask them to date the images given what they learned in their experiences with the yearbooks.”