Unit I – The Institutionalization of Christianity 

  1. Apostle – one of an authoritative New Testament group sent out to preach the gospel and made up especially of Christ’s 12 original disciples and Paul
  2. Gnostic -“having knowledge” is a collection of ancient religious ideas and systems which originated in the first century AD among early Christian and Jewish sects. These various groups emphasized personal spiritual knowledge over orthodox teachings, traditions, or the authority of the church.
  3. Codex Sinaiticus – “Sinai Bible” is one of the four great uncial codices, ancient, handwritten copies of a Christian Bible in Greek.
  4. Bishop – is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
  5. Pentarchy – a model of Church organization historically championed in the Eastern Orthodox Church. It was formulated in the laws of Emperor Justinian I (527–565) of the Roman Empire.
  6. Eremetic monasticism –  solitary monasticism, is characterized by a complete withdrawal from society.
  7. Cenobitic monasticism – a monastic tradition that stresses community life.
  8. Council of Nicaea – a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea by the Roman Emperor Constantine I.
  9. Council of Ephesus – a council of Christian bishops convened in AD 431 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius II
  10. Council of Chalcedon – a church council held from 8 October to 1 November, 451, at Chalcedon. Its principal purpose was to assert the orthodox catholic doctrine against the heresy of Monophysitism and Eutyches
  11. Council of Constantinople – a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople in AD 381 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I
  12. Miaphysite – Of or relating to the doctrine that in the person of Jesus there is either a single divine nature, or one inseparable nature, partly divine, and partly human; designating a Church professing this doctrine, or a person belonging to such a Church
  13. Theotokos – title of Mary, mother of Jesus, used especially in Eastern Christianity
  14. Patriarchate – designating the office and jurisdiction of an ecclesiastical patriarch.
  15. Oecumenical – principle by Christians of different church traditions and denominations to develop closer relationships and better unity between other traditions and denominations of Christianity
  16. Basilica (See pg. 197) – a rectangular chamber big enough to hold large numbers, with an entrance through one of the long sides to face the chair of the presiding magistrate or ruler, often housed in a semicircular apse in the other long wall.
  17. Holy Sepulchre – a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. The church contains, according to traditions dating back to at least the fourth century, the two holiest sites in Christianity: the site where Jesus was crucified and Jesus’s empty tomb, where he was buried and resurrected.
  18. Ousia – used by various ancient Greek philosophers, like Plato and Aristotle, as a primary designation for philosophical concepts of essence or substance
  19. Homoousios – describing Jesus as “same in being” or “same in essence” with God the Father.
  20. Prosopon – the self-manifestation of an individual
  21. Hypostasis – one of the three hypostases of the Trinity
  22. Trinity – The Christian doctrine of the Trinity holds that God is one God, but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son , and the Holy Spirit—as “one God in three Divine persons”
  23. Christology – translated literally from Greek as “the study of Christ”
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