Virtual Abstract Book

Oral Presentations


OP 1.1 Map of Water Utilities’ Vulnerability to Harmful Water Quality from Wildfires in the Pacific Northwest

Patrick Robichaud, Washington State University

Water utilities in the Western U.S. are vulnerable to climate change because of wildfires and the detrimental cascading effects that follow such as declining water quality. Wildfires are increasing in number and size as summers become hotter and drier, and these disturbances have the potential to increase post-fire runoff-induced erosion and sediment loads to rivers and reservoirs which can overwhelm water treatment plants. Additionally, post-fire soil erosion can increase the concentration of contaminants such as heavy metals, organic carbon, and nutrients which can be difficult for water utilities to remove before delivery to their customers. This research couples a wildfire and a water quality vulnerability index at the watershed scale to better understand which water utilities are most at risk to wildfire in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Here, wildfire vulnerability metrics rely on climatic and geographical characteristics to estimate the likely risk of fire in a given watershed. The water quality metrics aim to capture potential post-fire water quality changes by accounting for landscape and land use data, land ownership, water utility intake location, water source diversity, and fire preparedness plans. Combining these data for each watershed yields a vulnerability score for the 47 Pacific Northwest water utilities included in the study. These results can be used to inform water utility managers of vulnerable municipal watersheds as well as which areas should be prioritized for forest management and post-fire erosion mitigation if a wildfire occurs. Forest management could be forest thinning and prescribed fire which will help reduce the risk of catastrophic wildfires.

OP 1.2 Using Serious Game to Communicate the Effects of Bioswales

Fatima Taha, Oregon State University

This project is part university research and part collaboration with the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) and Oregon State University’s Computer Science Capstone Project. Educational topics such as water management can be difficult to introduce to general audiences in an engaging manner. This project will introduce the concept of using serious games as a tool to help users learn about these concepts in an entertaining setting. Serious games are a subdivision of games designed with a purpose greater than pure entertainment, and use techniques such as simulation to educate users with added elements of fun and engagement. The goal of the project is to develop an interactive activity called ‘build your neighborhood’ hosted on mobile platforms. This serious game is used to convey the ecological benefits and trade-offs of implementing bioswales in neighborhoods and communities. Bioswales are street-side channels designed as an ecologically friendlier alternative to sewer drains. Bioswales absorb runoff from rainstorms and perform natural filtration by allowing the runoff to drain through layers of native plants and grasses, mulch, soil, and gravel before reentering the groundwater system. The serious game will allow players to build a neighborhood using a certain set of tiles (housing, bioswales, wetlands, and streets). The game will provide background information related to the tiles and their organization. It also provides general feedback on the quality of the user’s neighborhood and the impacts of their design choices through a point system, determined by benchmarks such as housing affordability, aesthetics, safety, and temperature. The users will learn about the elements of neighborhood design, and low-impact urban development and its effects on the environment. The project will create a game that is used as an intervention to learn about the effects and consequences of bioswales; we will have people participating in the research by playing the game and take pre-and post- game surveys to analyze the perception of humans towards bioswales.

OP 1.3 The Role of Islam in Water Resources Management: Could it be Integrated into International Water Law Principles (IWLP) for the Islamic-dominated States?

Najibullah Loodin, Oregon State University; Aaron Wolf

Considering the negative impacts of climate changes along with the rapid increase in population in Islamic dominated states, e.g., the Middle East, water tension among upstream and downstream states is increasing. Despite the importance of water in Islamic culture and studies, the role of religion has been under-valued and under-emphasized by scholars. The aim of this thesis is to assess how religion, specifically Islam as the predominant religion in the Middle East, can contribute to water conflict resolution among riparian states. Using qualitative research and a case study approach, this thesis has sought to evaluate how water conflict was managed during the time of the Prophet Mohammad (610-632); to analyze the differences and commonalities of Islamic water management principles (IWMP) with international water law principles (IWLP); and finally, to synthesize the two sets of principles into one comprehensive policy-oriented framework to address the equitable and sustainable use of water in Middle East. The findings from this analysis show not only that IWMP are in full conformity with IWLP, but that in many cases, IWMP can be more effective. For instance, where international water accords between riparian states of a shared river basin are poorly developed and lack enforcement mechanisms under IWLP, those upstream can abuse their geographical location, depriving those downstream. By contrast, IWMP stress the equitable use of water resources among upstream and downstream users. Moreover, although IWLPs emphasize the conservation and preservation of ecosystems and the environment, riparian states, especially those upstream, can pose significant harm to ecosystems. On the other side, Islam as the religion of peace, has placed much emphasis on the preservation of nature. For example, the verse, “…. And waste not by excess, for Allah loves not the wasters” (Quran, 7:31), illustrates the importance of the sustainable use of the environment. It is argued that if Islamic Water Management Principles are incorporated into International Water Law Principles, the issue of equitable and sustainable use of water among riparian Muslim-dominated states (e.g., Iran, Afghanistan, etc.) can be, to a great extent, resolved.

OP 1.4 How does emergent floodplain vegetation density affect flows in meandering compound channels? A 3D numerical modeling study

Nicolas Brouillard, Colorado State University; Danny White; Peter Nelson; Ryan Morrison

We must improve our understanding and predictions of flow responses to floodplain vegetation conditions if we are to adapt to the environmental needs for river flooding and increased potential for flooding due to climate change. When a river floods, the density of emergent floodplain vegetation influences the interplay between main channel and floodplain flows. This interplay impacts the flow velocity field which governs functions important to channel evolution, sustaining aquatic habitats, biogeochemical processing of nutrients and pollutants, and controlling flood severity. However, little is known about how emergent floodplain vegetation density at various relative depths affects the flow field in meandering compound channels. Here we use a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to investigate how emergent floodplain vegetation density and relative depth influence flow velocities, conveyance capacities in the main channel and floodplain, secondary flow cells, boundary shear stresses, and floodplain residence times in a meandering compound channel. We first validate the model by simulating the conditions of an experiment conducted in a meandering compound channel with a rigid, rectangular main channel cross section and a smooth floodplain at various relative depths. The predicted free surface elevations and average velocities among other components of the flow field are compared with the physical model results to evaluate the accuracy of the numerical model. We then perform numerical experiments with emergent, cylindrical elements representing vegetation at different densities on the floodplain. For each floodplain condition, we expect a minimum average streamwise main channel velocity to occur at a threshold relative depth above bankfull. As floodplain vegetation density increases, the average streamwise main channel velocity minimum should vary in magnitude and occur at a higher relative depth. The influence of floodplain vegetation density on the flow field should decrease with increasing relative depth. In moving toward more ecologically resilient river restoration designs, restoration and river management practitioners should consider how floodplain vegetation affects flow and related channel evolution processes in meandering compound channels.

OP 1.5 Memories of Increasing Rain-on-Snow Floods in the Pacific Northwest

Zachary Provant, University of Oregon

Research on rain-on-snow (ROS) repeatedly suggests that ROS floods are a significant and growing hazard to lives, livelihoods, and lifestyles in the Pacific Northwest. However, there has yet to be a thorough examination of the impacts of ROS floods on people in and near the Cascade Mountains. The physical science of ROS must therefore be complemented by qualitative research in order to unpack the complex social, political, and economic factors that contribute to flood vulnerability. This paper considers Oregon’s Jackson county, which has experienced repeated severe winter ROS flooding of the Rogue river over the last century. By analyzing disaster response and mitigation strategies in the region, I demonstrate how local institutions tend to naturalize ROS floods as random events with unavoidable consequences. This narrative not only discourages individuals from preparing for ROS floods, but it also suppresses a rich memory of past ROS flood events that can prove useful for future disaster planning. I therefore discuss the discrepancy between “institutional memory” and “community memory” when evaluating flood risk. In addition to highlighting the differential vulnerability associated with disaster mitigation and response, a historical approach that engages community memory can complement return period-based forecasting by offering risk reduction strategies that more clearly addresses the lived experiences of people in flood zones. Moving forward, there is an urgent need for qualitative fieldwork that addresses local experiences of ROS floods and critically evaluates the distribution of ROS impacts.

OP 1.6 Water source as an indicator of potential streamflow response to climate change in rain-dominated, storage-limited watersheds

Rosemary Pazdral, Oregon State University; Mary Santelmann; Rebecca Flitcroft

Lithology is an important consideration in the analysis of streamflow regimes and seasonal water availability in rain-dominated watersheds. By definition, rain-dominated watersheds in seasonal climates rely on old water sources, or water draining into the stream from the critical zone, during the dry portion of the year. In the Oregon Coast Range, there are two predominant lithologies: sedimentary (sandstone) and volcanic (basalt). It has been demonstrated that these lithologies store, transport, and release water by different processes. However, the degree to which streamflow regimes and seasonal runoff timing are influenced by lithology in rain-dominated, coastal watersheds is unknown. Increased understanding of rainfall-runoff processes in these systems is important because it may be an indicator of aquatic systems that are likely to become warmer and drier under changing precipitation conditions. The timing and quantity of streamflow is particularly relevant in this region to Pacific salmon, who rely on specific aquatic conditions during both dry and wet seasons for juvenile survival and adult spawning. We use stable isotopes, electrical conductivity, watershed physiography, and long-term streamflow records to investigate the relationship between predominant streamflow source (old or new water) and streamflow quantity and timing across six headwater watersheds in the Oregon Coast Range.

OP 1.7 Water Investment Ready Oregon: Accessing Federal Water Funding

Clark Shimeall, Portland State University; Yujin Kim, Yale University; Bobby Cochran

Analysis of what federal programs fund water-related work, how well Oregon competes in terms of gross and per capita $ relative to other states, standout programs, and what the state can do to improve its share of federal water funding in the future. Research will be presented to the Oregon Legislature, relevant state actors, and others in the non-governmental sphere in the near future. Research funded by Willamette Partnership.


OP 2.1 Transboundary wetlands: exploring formal mechanisms of cooperation

Zoe Rosenblum, Oregon State University

Despite increased understanding of the benefits of wetlands, global wetland area continues to decrease. Wetlands are being lost at an alarming rate, and with them, biodiversity, floodwater storage, water purification, and countless other functions. There is little information available about mechanisms to manage transboundary wetlands. While the Ramsar Convention is one international mechanism for wetland governance, there are very few cases in which all riparian parties have jointly designated a Transboundary Ramsar Site. Most research on transboundary wetlands explores specific conflicts or management issues or argues for or against the Ramsar Convention as a legal tool to manage wetlands. However, little research explores institutions for managing transboundary wetlands. Furthermore, while there is much evidence that freshwater resources are a source of cooperation, there is emphasis on rivers and wetlands are largely absent from the discourse. This research employs document analysis, coding, and spatial analysis to explore how transboundary wetlands are managed. The products of this research are: a database of the world’s transboundary wetlands; an in-depth analysis of the management of the Wadden Sea, Okavango Delta, and the Hamoun Wetlands; and a discussion of factors that may contribute to cooperation over transboundary wetlands.

OP 2.2 Pass or fail? An evaluation of the efficacy of a fish ladder in a city-owned watershed

Christina Linkem, Oregon State University; Jordan Eaton; Ivan Arismendi; Tiffany Garcia

The Rock Creek Watershed in in Philomath, Oregon is owned by the City of Corvallis and serves a variety of purposes for human needs, including the supply of drinking water to Corvallis residents. The watershed also hosts an abundance of native wildlife, including Coastal Cutthroat Trout and Coastal Giant Salamanders. While the watershed is closed to the public and is relatively undisturbed, anthropogenic impacts are still present and may have an effect on the local fauna. A water intake structure that spans the width of the stream is used to draw water from one of the tributaries. While there is a fish ladder present to aid fish passage, it’s efficacy has not yet been evaluated. Furthermore, a water reservoir located upstream in the watershed occasionally has warm water spillage events that result in an increase in stream temperature. Here, we evaluate the movement of trout and salamanders to determine whether the water intake structure’s fish ladder is an impediment to movement, and we also describe the movements of trout and salamanders in relation to streamflow and stream temperature to determine how trout and salamanders respond to the upstream warm water spillage. To address these objectives, we tagged trout and salamanders with PIT tags and tracked their movement using mobile and stationary antennas.

OP 2.3 Using Chemical and Biological Markers to Track Sources of Anthropogenic Contamination during Storm Events in Urban Mediterranean Waterways

Frederick Pinongcos, San Diego State University; Natalie Mladenov; Jose Calderon; Matthew Verbyla; Alicia Kinoshita; Richard Gersberg

In Southern California, storm events have resulted in frequent closures of beaches and other recreational waters due to regular exceedances of water quality benchmarks. Some of the suspected sources of anthropogenic contamination in urban waterbodies are sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs), illegal connections and discharges, and wastes from homeless encampments. Temporal changes in surface water level and flood volume also have the potential to inundate more contaminant source areas, thereby increasing the sources or magnitude of contaminants over the duration of a storm. In addition, long antecedent dry periods of Mediterranean climates can also mean longer time for contaminants to accumulate in both surface and subsurface sources magnifying the impact of contamination during storm events. Contamination brought by polluted runoffs can contain pathogens that can cause a variety of health problems and diseases The aim of this study was to analyze the possible sources of contamination by evaluating the temporal trends and patterns in loadings and concentrations of biological and chemical constituents during storm events. We also look at the chemical and biological characteristics of different end-member environments to aid distinguish the different sources of pollution to an urban river in Southern California. Temporal stormwater samples were collected during five storm events spanning a range of intensities and duration during the 2018 and 2019 hydrologic years. Our study monitored traditional fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (i.e. Escherichia coli and enterococcus), novel molecular source tracking (MST) markers (i.e. HF 183 and Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV)), caffeine, and sucralose as tracers of human contamination. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), anions, and organic matter fluorescence were also analyzed. This study provides information on the temporal patterns in both concentration and loadings of different anthropogenic contaminants, which is important in developing methods to treat stormwater runoff and help policymakers in creating efforts and regulations that aim to protect surface waters and public health.

OP 2.4 Assimilation of citizen science data to improve modeled estimates of snow distribution in remote, data-limited environments

Christina Aragon, Oregon State University; David F. Hill; Ryan L. Crumley; Katreen Wikstrom Jones; Gabriel J. Wolken; Anthony A. Arendt; Emilio Mayorga

Snow is an essential part of human and natural systems in many locations because it links together cool season freshwater storage and warm season water demand. Understanding of the temporal and spatial distribution of snow across landscapes has implications for water supplies, the economy, fisheries, ecosystem function, hazard mitigation, recreation and the climate. Despite this, mountains are relatively data-sparse. Most in-situ measurements are taken from discrete sites that do not represent entire watersheds and often miss the highest elevations where snow accumulation is the greatest. Community Snow Observations (CSO) is a NASA funded research effort aimed at improving the spatial and temporal coverage of snow data in high-elevation, data-poor alpine regions through a grassroots citizen science campaign. Professional and recreational backcountry users can submit snow depth measurements anywhere and anytime, thus providing more frequent and extensive observations than would be possible with individual scientific field campaigns. These CSO data are assimilated in our high-resolution snow modeling workflow to improve the model output. Results from a pilot study site in Thompson Pass, AK, showed that assimilation of these opportunistic citizen science observations reduced the error metrics of the modeled snow distribution. Using an automated calibration process, we expanded our modeling effort to domains where there has been high citizen science participation, including domains in OR, WA, WY, UT, and CA. Using multiple modeling domains that span multiple snow climates, we will explore strategies to optimize the assimilation of CSO data in space and time. Our work will evaluate the added value of assimilating CSO data vs assimilation of more traditional data sources, such as Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) station data. CSO data are predominantly located in remote locations that are typically higher in elevation than nearby SNOTEL stations, thus filling a gap in the observational record. When CSO snow depths are compared to Snow Data Assimilation (SNODAS) products, which assimilates SNOTEL data, SNODAS has low snow depth bias compared to the CSO data. This suggests that the assimilation of CSO data could improve modeled snow distributions particularly in high-elevation complex terrain where one would expect to find the deepest snowpacks. Improved estimates of snow distribution in our mountains advances estimates of snow-derived water resources and helps us better understand hazards such as flooding and avalanches.

OP 2.5 Modeling the Effects of Natural Disasters on County-level Migration Flows in the U.S.

Stefan Rose, Oregon State University

Natural disaster events are an increasingly costly and frequent occurrence globally and in the United States (IPCC 2012; Berlemann & Steinhardt, 2017). Discrete disaster events have been shown to be push factors in temporary and long-term migration (Black et al. 2013). Understanding the interaction between migration flows and disaster events can provide valuable insights to public officials regarding effective allocation of goods and services. In this study, I estimate the effects of natural disaster indicators on historical county-level migration flows in the contiguous United States. Findings offer important implications for public policy and regional planning across spatial scales.

OP 2.6 Title TBD

Abdullah Yigit, Oregon State University

Klamath River Basin (KRB) is one of the extensively utilized basins of Western US with multiple stakeholders including tribes, farmers, state and federal agencies . Historical tension over water resources of Klamath River has become visible by the 2001 drought (Doremus & Tarlock, 2003) and the subject of a series of negotiations between 2005-2010 resulting in Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement and Klamath Hydroelectric Settlement Agreement which are terminated due to lack of Congressional approval. Even though the negotiations captured national interest, as well as research interest, the narratives used by the stakeholders in the negotiations needs to be investigated more deeply. This research investigates how do the narratives of the participant and non-participants of the Klamath negotiations between 2005-2010 differ. Primary source of data is the press releases of all major stakeholders of Klamath River Basin. The documents will be subject to thematic coding. The research will be guided by the hypothesis of meso level analysis of the Narrative Policy Framework (NPF) (Jones et al., 2014). The results will show us the difference between the participants and non-participants stories in terms of NPF narrative characters as hero, villain and victim.

OP 2.7 Tree-Ring Reconstruction of North Fork Nooksack River August Streamflow

Hannah LaGassey, Western Washington University/Umpqua National Forest; Dr. Aquila Flower

Melting snowpack provides streamflow in the Cascade Mountains in the warm, dry summer season. Climate change has lengthened this season, resulting in reduced snowpack, streamflow, and water resources. The length of our instrumental streamflow records limit our ability to more fully evaluate this issue. In the North Cascades of Washington State, the North Fork Nooksack River streamflow record begins in the mid-twentieth century, well after the onset of anthropogenic climate change. We used sub-annual tree-ring proxies from mountain hemlock to reconstruct average August streamflow of the North Fork Nooksack River to the sixteenth century. This record provides context for current and future hydrological conditions in high-elevation watersheds in the Pacific Northwest.

Poster Presentations

PP 1.1 Examining long-term streamflow and water chemistry to understand influence of snow dynamics on summer baseflow in the western United States

Keira Johnson, Oregon State University

Since 1970, temperatures across the western US have increased. Coinciding with increases in temperature, decreases in snow accumulation and increases in snow melt have been observed during the mid-to-late snow season (Kapnick and Hall, 2012). Many studies have evaluated the impacts of warming temperatures on streams in the western US, concluding that earlier peak flows, driven by earlier snowpack melt, will cause lower summer flows (Segura et al, 2019; Ficklin et al, 2013; Huntington and Niswonger, 2012). However, two fundamental questions remain elusive from this work done on snowpack and SWE trends: 1) How do local snow dynamics (SWE, snow persistence, accumulation, melt rate and timing) influence inter- and intra-annual variation of summer flow volume and baseflow proportion? and 2) How does lithology and climate variability across a spatial gradient influence summer flow volume and baseflow proportion? These questions will be investigated using historic stream flow, stream chemistry, and SNODAS data from three watersheds in the western US. Preliminary results from two end member chemical hydrograph separation indicate that groundwater contributions are proportionally highest in the summer and lowest during snow melt season. Across all three sites, years with more snow have higher summer low-flow volumes and lower proportions of groundwater in the summer flows. This suggests that there may be streamflow contributions from dynamic, shallow subsurface storage, in addition to a deep, more constant, groundwater reservoir. Therefore, we propose that in wetter years there is more recharge to and storage in these shallow reservoirs that then contribute to streamflow into the late summer. To further differentiate deep and shallow sources of summer stream flow, principal component analysis on stream chemistry and three end member mixing analysis will be applied. In addition, we will investigate the residence time in these shallow reservoirs to determine the potential for multi-year storage.

PP 1.2 Agrivoltaics at two scales

Kyle Proctor, Oregon State University

Agrivoltaic systems co-locate agricultural growth with Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy production, improving overall land use efficiency and mitigating concerns over land competition between existing agricultural use and increased solar energy development. The agrivoltaic approach has been shown to reduce overall water demand as a result of panel shading, increase panel efficiency due to the cooling effects of the crop’s latent heat exchange, and potentially increase yield for certain shade tolerant crops. In order to estimate the potential of wide-spread agrivoltaic implementation it is necessary to consider both the systems-level economic implications and the on the ground plant physiology in these systems. We present a reduced-order cost analysis which estimates that it would be feasible to meet 20% of the US electricity demand by converting less than 1% of US farmlands to Agrivoltaic production. This undertaking also has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by 330.5 metric tons annually while creating over 100,000 jobs, primarily in rural areas. Additionally, we present ongoing field trials of Red hawk kidney beans (Phaseolous vulgaris) on a 482-kW array located on the Oregon State University Vegetable farm, highlighting methodologies for modeling vegetative growth in Agrivoltaic conditions.

PP 1.3 Spatial distributions of vegetation in post-restoration salt marshes in the Salmon River Estuary, Oregon

Keaton Schrank, Oregon State University

The Salmon River Estuary is composed of salt marshes, separated by channels, which have been influenced by human activity for decades, mainly through the installation of dikes and floodgates to create pastures for grazing. The Salmon River Estuary, which lies within the Cascade Head Scenic Research Area on the Oregon coast, has been of significant scientific interest since it was designated as a reserve in the mid-1970s. Restoration efforts began in 1978 with the removal of dikes in certain parts of the Estuary, and more dikes and floodgates in the Estuary were removed in subsequent years. Shortly after the removal of the first dike, researchers established vegetation transects throughout much of the Estuary to monitor the response of the vegetation to restoration efforts, and there are now vegetation cover data spanning five decades for the ecosystem. This study seeks to analyze these existing datasets to better understand how vegetation distributions in the marshes have changed over time, using multivariate statistical analyses and remote sensing. Multivariate statistical analyses, including Non-metric Multi-dimensional Scaling, Indicator Species Analysis, Cluster Analysis, and Multi-Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP) were carried out at the plot, marsh zone, and marsh levels for the four marshes of interest (Y Marsh, Mitchell Marsh, Salmon Creek Marsh, and the relatively unaltered Reference Marsh) to quantify changes in species composition over time. The LandTrendr suite of tools was also used to determine if remote sensing is a feasible and effective tool for use in analyzing vegetation change in post-restoration salt marshes. Preliminary results indicate that the marshes that were once disturbed and have since been restored have not returned to their pre-disturbance conditions. The MRPP results show that the restored marshes are more similar to one another than they are to the Reference Marsh. These results indicate that site history and disturbance play a major role in the post-restoration health of salt marshes ecosystems, and further studies should be carried out to determine the efficacy of restoration practices in the Salmon River Estuary.

PP 1.4 Summer low flow response to different riparian treatments in forested headwater streams of Coastal Northern California

Jonah Nicholas, Oregon State University; Kevin D. Bladon; Catalina Segura

Timber harvesting generally decreases interception and transpiration leading to increased soil water content and groundwater recharge. These changes in the water balance components can also increase water yields. However, recent research has illustrated re-growing vegetation may reduce summer streamflow over the long-term due to elevated transpiration rates, especially from riparian vegetation. As such, it is critical to evaluate the summer low flow response to different riparian treatments, which have changed rapidly in recent years. Our study will address the question: How are runoff generation processes and warm-season low flows affected by different riparian buffers treatments in Coastal Northern California? We hypothesize retention of denser riparian vegetation will reduce the increase in low flows and timber harvests will increase soil water content and groundwater discharge to streams. We will quantify streamflow and hillslope runoff processes in 18 headwater catchments (area: 10.5– 63.8 ha) divided into four blocks that include different harvesting treatments in the near 100-foot riparian area. The treatments include: (a) reference (no harvest), (b) 30-foot inner zone with no harvest and 70-foot outer zone with 80% canopy cover, (c) 30-foot inner zone with 85% cover and 70-foot outer zone with 70% cover, and (d) 50% canopy cover across the entire riparian area. We will install 3–4 groundwater wells and four soil moisture sensors on hillslopes of four catchments, representing each riparian treatment, to quantify sub-surface runoff processes. We will present our research design and preliminary data comparing the reference and harvested streams. The results of this research will improve understanding of how different riparian treatments influence runoff generation processes and summer low flows. This is critical knowledge to facilitate informed forest policy and management decisions in rain dominated, forested catchments, especially in the western Pacific Northwest.

PP 1.5 Drivers of stream water geochemical behavior at a regional scale: Leveraging lithology, land use, and climate gradients across Texas

Grace Goldrich-Middaugh, Oregon State University

Stream chemistry is dictated by many variables including flow volume, sources of water, surrounding environment, and influence of human activity. Observations of spatial and temporal changes in chemical measurements are increasingly being used to parse out environmental and anthropogenic drivers of change within a river system. However, traditional analyses of stream chemical behavior often require significant site-specific knowledge for detailed interpretation. In contrast, complex physical models have computational and data requirements that are often difficult to achieve at a regional scale. A combination of multiple analytical techniques gives an opportunity for identification of driving factors within a system that will provide a more detailed understanding of watershed behavior based on relationships between multiple variables. Texas offers an ideal laboratory for parsing out impacts of changing lithology and land use across a climate gradient. Major rivers run roughly parallel across the state where precipitation and land use intensity generally increase eastward, and lithologic changes occur perpendicular to flow. Application of analyses is focused on the Colorado, Brazos, Pecos, and Red rivers. Readily available measurements of flow volume (41 sites) and concentration of various stream and groundwater solutes (approximately 1,500 groundwater and 16,000 surface water measurements of each solute) from 1958-2019 and newly collected stream water chemistry data are used to parse out climate, land use, and lithology controls on spatial variations in stream water chemistry. Preliminary assessment of C-Q relationships and piper diagrams has revealed spatial trends attributed to evapotranspiration, presence of carbonates and gypsum, reservoirs, and tributaries. Further analysis will be based on statistical and mathematical grouping techniques which will be applied both within and across watersheds. These analyses have the potential to illuminate complex processes controlling hydrogeochemistry at a regional scale and allow for more targeted physical modelling efforts.

PP 1.6 Isotopic and Hydrochemical Findings of Surface-Ground Water Dynamics in an Urbanized Watershed, Portland , OR

Michael Harrison, Oregon State University

Groundwater recharge in urban settings vary significantly from natural settings due to urban water sources such as runoff derived from local, imported, and reclaimed waters. This project will evaluate various source waters within the Crystal Springs Watershed in Portland, OR to evaluate the extent in which urban source waters influence shallow groundwaters. Initial data of chloride and sulfate distinguished source waters influenced by groundwater. Groundwater, spring waters, and Crystal Springs Creek contain a relatively elevated concentration of sulfate ranging between 6.5 – 10 mg/L SO4 -2 compared to Johnson Creek ranging between 3-4 mg/L SO4 -2. Crystal Springs Creek and spring waters consist of relatively elevated nitrate concentrations compared to local groundwater and Johnson Creek. Crystal Springs Creek averages at 14 mg/L NO– 3 while spring waters average at 16.5 mg/L NO– 3. Local groundwaters average at 6 mg/L NO– 3 while Johnson Creek has nitrate concentrations below detection limits. Initial stable isotopes of deuterium and oxygen have demonstrated distinguishable signatures between groundwaters, spring water, creek water sources which demonstrates potential to create mixing models. The data obtained from this study will add knowledge on the urban hydrologic controls on groundwater systems in relation to natural and potential anthropogenic controls.

PP 1.7 Assessing the thermal sensitivity and storm responsiveness of headwater stream temperatures: A seasonal and event scale exploration.

Austin Wissler, Oregon State University; Kevin D. Bladon; Catalina Segura

Stream temperature is a critical water quality parameter; however, few studies have assessed longitudinal stream temperature trends at high spatiotemporal resolution in forested headwaters or quantified the stream temperature response to storm events. Thermal regimes in headwater streams are critical to understanding aquatic habitat resilience or resistance to disturbances, including climate change and timber harvesting. This work focuses on (1) characterizing the thermal sensitivity of headwater stream temperatures across two contrasting lithologies (basalt and sandstone), and (2) quantifying the stream temperature response to storm events across seasons. Stream and air temperature were monitored along headwater streams located in three locations in Northern California. Results for (1) indicate that headwater stream temperatures are cooler and less thermally sensitive to changing air temperatures at locations where underlying lithology promotes discrete groundwater discharge. The thin, friable soils draining to streams underlain by sandstone likely contributed baseflow from shallow subsurface sources, which were more influenced by changing air temperatures. Alternatively, the fractured bedrock and coarse soils in streams underlain by basalt created discrete locations where groundwater strongly cooled temperatures. Overall, these results reveal greater fine-scale thermal heterogeneity in streams underlain by basalt than sandstone. Methodology and preliminary results to (2) will be presented. This presentation will conclude with a discussion of the implications of this work to contemporary forest management.

PP 1.8 Spatial Distribution of Nutrient Concentrations and Diatom Communities in the Powder River

Hannah Smiley, Portland Community College; Dan Sobota

Biological communities can indicate the effects of pollution that may not be capture by instantaneous samples of environmental characteristics.  In river ecosystems, community characteristics of vertebrates and macroinvertebrates have long been used to assess system-wide ecological health.  More recently, metrics describing the composition and environmental preferences of periphyton (algae attached to bottom substrates in rivers) have been used to assess the ecological and pollution status of river ecosystems in several regions of the United States. To apply periphyton community assessments in new river systems, it is important to have a strong body of work that supports those metrics. I performed exploratory analysis on the diatom and nutrient data in the Powder River. My preliminary analysis links water quality with changes in the river’s biological community. I used visual representations of the data to demonstrate that diatom metrics correlate well with nutrient data. I found that nutrient variables such as TN and TP in the Powder River have an association with at least one diatom index (e.g., OptCat_LNtl). Nitrate concentrations increased longitudinally in the Powder River from 0.15 mg/L to 0.20 mg/L. Orthophosphate increased longitudinally from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L. The Chlorophylla results showed a bell curve, increasing from 22 mg/m2 to 125 mg/m2 then down to 50 mg/m2. This research suggests that nutrients are shifting the diatom community assemblage in the Powder River.

PP 1.9 The Impact of organic matter on the adsorption of heavy metals from water

Laurinda Nyarko, Oregon State University

Heavy metals can have adverse effects on aquatic life, human health and the  environment. These metals are mostly found complexed to organic matter in aquatic  environments. Several studies have revealed major differences in the molecular composition of  natural organic matter (NOM) and organic matter from anthropogenic sources such as  wastewater and stormwater, which are major contributors of organic matter to receiving waters.  While functional groups of organic compounds such as phenols and carboxyls have been  identified to make up organic matter, data on specific metal complexing ligands in organic  matter pools is non-existent. Studies have shown that metals select for different classes of  organic matter which can affect metal speciation, toxicity and removal. In fact, researchers have  discovered that organic matter affects adsorption, a low cost and efficient technique for heavy  metal treatment. To date, the mechanism of how organic matter impacts adsorbent performance  is not well understood. Whether this impact is due to direct interactions of organic matter with  the adsorbent, or the metal organic complexes formed, remains unclear. In an effort to fill these knowledge gaps, this project hopes to accomplish four main  objectives: 1) identify, characterize and quantify organic ligands that complex metals in  stormwater and wastewater using an advanced analytical technique, High Performance Liquid  Chromatography with tandem Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometer (HPLC-ICP-MS), 2) describe the mechanisms by which commercial adsorbents take up metals,  3) evaluate how organic matter changes the adsorption mechanism and impacts performance and  4) develop a framework that accounts for how both aqueous phase metal speciation and surface  complexation explain these processes. The work done so far, which will be presented, focuses on objectives 2 and 3.  Preliminary results indicate that the removal of copper by granular activated carbon (GAC) is  enhanced in the presence of organic matter. Ongoing work, which will also be included in the presentation, is a comparative study on how organic matter affects the adsorption performance of  GAC and biochar, another commercial adsorbent, for the removal of copper from stormwater 

PP 1.10 Assessing water quality improvement and treatment effectiveness at a 6-ha constructed wetland in Clackamas County, Oregon

Christopher Desiderati, Portland State University; Dr. Yangdong Pan; Dr. Eugene Foster

Stormwater management is an ongoing challenge worldwide. Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used as aesthetically pleasing, functional sunlight-powered engines for attenuating pollution delivered by stormwater to rivers and streams. Efficacy of CWs for pollutant attenuation vary by factors beyond design such as flow rate, pollutant loading, maintenance, and weather. In 2018, the Carli Creek Water Quality Project was completed, a 6-ha integrated creek restoration and CW, the latter consisting of treatment terrace comprised of a retention pond and three bioretention cells in series. The CW drains a highly industrialized and impervious (~90%) catchment via a combined 0.73 ha of treatment area (1:243 ratio versus catchment) and 4070 m3 of total runoff storage. On the treatment terrace, concentration and mass (load) percent reductions were determined for a partially complete sampling campaign. Average (n=8) concentration percent reduction averages were 31%, 23%, 17%, and 10% for Nitrate-Nitrite, Total Dissolved Solids, Dissolved Zinc and Total Zinc, respectively. Concurrent upstream and downstream sites on the receiving creek also show similar concentration reductions but terrace dilution flows are likely a factor. Average (n=5) load percent reduction averages were 55%, 57%, 48%, and 49% for Nitrate-Nitrite, Total Dissolved Solids, Dissolved Zinc, and Total Zinc, respectively. In contrast, concentration reductions for Ammonia, Total Phosphorous, Total Copper and Total Lead suggest concentration increases, while loads were reduced. This paired mass loading data shows infiltration plays an important water quality treatment role for the project. This research shows CWs can effectively reduce certain pollutants from heavily industrialized catchments and that understanding relationships with weather will improve CW design for more effective water quality improvement downstream.

PP 1.11 Predicting Source Water Quality Following Wildfires Using Hydrologic Modeling

Katie Wampler, Oregon State University; Kevin Bladon; Monireh Faramarzi

Forested watersheds are critical sources of the majority of the world’s drinking water. Almost one-third of the world’s largest cities and two-thirds of cities in the United States (US) rely on forested watersheds for their water supply. These forested regions are vulnerable to the increasing incidence of large and severe wildfires due to increases in regional temperatures and greater accumulation of fuels. When wildfires occur, source water quantity and quality in burned catchments can be affected for many years. Post-fire increases in suspended sediment and organic carbon can negatively affect aquatic ecosystem health and create many costly challenges to the drinking water treatment process. While past research has shown the likelihood of source water impacts from wildfire, the magnitude and timing of effects remains uncertain in most regions. In our study, we will quantify the projected short-term effects of three large (>70,000 ha) wildfires on key water quality parameters (sediment and carbon) in two important forested source watersheds in the Cascade Range of Oregon, US. We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to build a representation of the watersheds prior to the wildfires, using previously collected water quantity and quality data to calibrate and validate the models. We will then modify model parameters to represent the landscape and hydrologic impacts of the wildfires based on burn severity maps. The wildfire simulation will be validated with post-fire water quality sampling from modeled wildfires. We will present estimations of future water quality impacts in the burned watersheds under different precipitation conditions at a daily scale for the first year following the wildfires, which will provide testable hypotheses. Additionally, we will determine catchment characteristics most critical in determining the post-fire water quality response. This work will help predict the magnitude of effects from these historic wildfires, which can inform forest and drinking water management decision making.

PP 1.12 Covid Sampler

Hadi AL-agele, Oregon State University; Bao D Nguyen; Liam P Zimmermann; Gurpreet Singh

There are many reasons for sampling wastewater. Wastewater monitoring is considered a successful method to detect various viruses transfer from human waste. Using the strategy was investigated to follow chemical and biological signs of human activity that comprise illicit drug consumption, pharmaceuticals use/abuse, water pollution, and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance genes in wastewater. Analyzing sewage water for pathogens like the COVID19 virus could enable early detection of infected areas. We developed a low-cost (~US$600), open-source automatic water sampler with operational flexibility and simple data logging. Most auto water samplers are expensive and complicated to program. These issues limit the usefulness of such hardware. Our system addresses all these concerns. The customizability of both the hardware and firmware (via options and code modification) allows for the device to be tailored easily to each application. We present experimental data for the collection of approximately 2400 ml of water in 24 hours at 4 feet, 10 feet, and 16 feet.

PP 1.13 Strategic conjunctive use of groundwater for thermal restoration

Abigail Hale, Oregon State University

Survival of ecological systems pivot on critical moments. In the arid John Day Basin of Eastern Oregon, extensive restoration of the stream and floodplain has been occurring over 20 years but recurring short periods of extreme temperature increase with low flows result in high salmonid mortality before spawning. Temperature stress during extreme events may be alleviated with strategic conjunctive use of groundwater in the stream. The feasibility of groundwater additions is here examined in environmental-hydrologic, economic, and socio-political terms for the Middle Fork of the John Day. Based on thermal mixing equations, adding between 0.03 and 0.14 cubic meters per second of water at 10°C lowers stream temperatures be several degrees. Pumping wells to access water must be placed a minimum of 220 meters away from streams to limit potential declines in flow to the wet season (October to January). Use of groundwater additions is more cost effective that past restoration techniques in terms of lowering temperatures that result in fish kills but legal structures of water resources in Oregon limit the use of such methods in headwaters with narrow floodplains and less studied aquifers. Similar addition methods such as artificial storage and recovery projects may be more desirable and provide the same thermal benefit to support salmonid populations and continued restoration of the Middle Fork.

PP 1.14 Quantifying spatial-temporal dynamics of ecosystem metabolomes in watersheds

Cheng Shi, Oregon State University

Inland waterways are data loggers that collect ecosystem information from all corners of a watershed. This information is recorded as tens of thousands of dissolved organic molecules, sometimes referred to as a metabolome, which represents the sum of all processes and activities occurring across a landscape. By screening a single water sample at the outlet of a watershed, it is theoretically possible to simultaneously quantify all ecosystem processes occurring upstream in a watershed simply by testing for the presence of the diagnostic metabolomic signatures of each process. Advances in high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and machine learning make it possible to decode watershed metabolomes. Our aim is to build upon these strategies to identify the different chemical signatures that are indicative of different landscapes and watershed processes. A major challenge in using chemical signatures to quantify ecosystem processes is accounting for temporal variability in metabolomic signatures. In this study, we quantified the temporal and spatial variability of environmental metabolomes from 4 watersheds in Western Oregon. The findings suggest that seasonal ecosystem processes are controlling the metabolomic signatures more than spatial or land use variation. Indicator species to different land use categories are identified and compared with chemical fingerprints from previous study. Future research should consider the influence of metabolomic elasticity on the chemical signatures of ecosystem processes and land use categories.

PP 1.16 Increasing Environmental Realism: Comparing Representative Microplastics to Manufactured Analogs

Campbell McColley, Oregon State University

Deemed “emerging contaminants” by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, microplastics (MPs) are plastic particles less than 5 mm in size. MPs come in many different sizes, shapes, and polymer types. They can be categorized as Primary MPs (particles specifically designed for commercial use) or Secondary MPs (particles that are derived from primary plastics). These contaminants are increasingly found in surface waters due to a rise in commercial and industrial use, affecting ecosystems and drinking water sources alike. Due to the challenges of detecting and quantifying MPs in the environment, strong predictive fate and transport models are critical for risk assessment. However, current models are largely based on experiments with “pristine” particles in simplified media that may not represent the reality of MPs in the environment. For example, microsphere analogs are often used in current MP research. Plastics are more commonly found as fragments, fibers, and films as opposed to these microspheres. In this preliminary work, I produced more realistic polystyrene MPs from household plastics using two techniques: alkaline sonication and cryomilling. The generated MPs were compared to 5 um polystyrene microspheres using microscopic imaging and particle sizing techniques. Future work will involve more comprehensive chemical and physical characterization of the polystyrene MPs, extensions to other commonly found polymer types in surface waters, and aggregation experiments with natural organic matter (NOM), a key interaction for particles in the environment. The aim of these MP experiments is to identify differences between these particles to bridge the gap between realism and simple systems for more reliable contaminant modeling.

PP 1.17 Evaluating the predictive capacity of models and the influence of various sized flood events on channel evolution in a steep mountain stream

Leah Cromer, Oregon State University

A great deal of work has been done to develop and test reach scale, physically based numerical models that simulate the hydrodynamics of a river that govern channel form, but very few studies have attempted to test these models relative to long term cross section data from real channels, especially in steep mountain streams. This study uses 33 years of long term channel cross section and discharge data paired with FastMECH, a quasi-steady two dimensional hydraulic model, to examine how modeled changes in channel evolution correspond with observed changes in channel morphology and grain size distributions. The study takes place in Lower Lookout Creek, a steep gravel bedded mountain stream in H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, located in the West Cascades of Oregon. Cross section change analyses were performed on every pair of cross sections from consecutive survey years to determine change in scour, deposition, net deposition (deposition – scour) and reworked area (scour + deposition). Linear regressions and Mann-Kendall trend tests were then used to examine the relationship between peak flows and channel change in individual cross sections and reach averaged change. Two floods – one of a return interval of 5 years and the other of a return interval of 70 years – were parameterized and modeled.The resulting spatial distributions of shear stress and observed grain size distributions are used to examine predicted sediment transport and corresponding changes in channel morphology.