Aquarama – One of the Premier Ornamental Fish Industry Trade Shows. Some thoughts and Observations.

I’m in Singapore, a wonderful city, attending Aquarama one of the major ornamental fish trade shows.

A panoramic view of Marine Bay, central Singapore

Aquarama is an annual trade show held at the Suntec Convention and trade center in Singapore. The show provides an opportunity for may segments of the industry to come together and network, see new products, conduct business, attend seminars and tour facilities.

The Trade Show

Dr. Tim Chatting with Scott Dowd from the New England Aquarium outside the Ornamental Fish International booth.

Water Bats!!!

It is a large event strictly devoted to ornamental fish and invertebrates. The show is also well known for its fish and aquarium show. Here producers enter fish, planted tanks and marine aquarium displays. THey are judged by experts and the winners announced. It is another great way for producers to showcase their products.

The Fish Show

Eric very excited about a red arowana

and the Bettas!!

THere are also two days of educational seminars, addressing key issues in the industry. Topics covered over the past two days focused on international perspectives on a changing industry and maintaining of improving quality of the animals traded. Speakers from multiple countries provided a diverse range of views, experiences and opinions. Specific topics included:

  • Resident-based Ornamental Fisheries in the Western Ghats, India: Managing Poverty Alleviation and Change at the community Level. – Dr. Rajeev Raghavan
  • An update on Recent Biosecurity Changes and Their Impact on the Australian Ornamental fish Sector – Shane Willis, Australia
  • Roadmap towards a “Green” Aquarium Industry – Scott Dowd, USA
  • Eco-Freindly Marine Culture and Capture – A Mexican Perspective – Dr. Nuno Simoes, Mexico
  • Potential Impacts of Climate Change on the Ornamental Fish Industry – Ryan Donnelly, Australia
  • A New quality Assurance Scheme to Assure better Quality  Ornamental Fish from Singapore – Poh Yew Kwang, Singapore
  • Total Quality Management in the Aquarium Business – Dr. Anton Lamboj, Austria
  • Fish Health and Biosecurity Issues in Retail Shops and Wholesale facilities – Dr. Gerald Bassaleer, The Netherlands
  • DNA Multi-Scan a New Fish Disease Diagnostic Tool – Dr. Kris Willems, Belgium
  • Implications of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome Legislation for the Ornamental Aquatic Industry – Somkiat Kanchanakhan, Thailand
  • EU Fish Health Legislation: Clarifying the Confusion and Introduction of New Online Tool for the Successful Completion of Health Certificates for Import – Alex Ploeg, The Netherlands
  • Invasive Ornamental Fish Species in Singapore: A Case Study – Dr. Ng Heok Hee, Singapore
  • A Trade Perspective on Invasive Species – Sven Fossa, Norway
  • A Profile of the Indian Ornamental Fish Industry with Special Focus on the Concerns of Key Players – Dr. Mini Sakharan, India
  • Trends in Breeding Marine Aquarium Fish: Where Are We Today and Where Do We Need to Go? – Matthew Wittenrich, USA
  • Where do Science, Industry, and Aquariums meet?Practical Applications for What Can Be From THings Learned in the Aquarium Hobby – Julian Sprung, USA

What I have taken away from these presentations and my discussions with industry members is that there are three emerging areas that all sectors of the industry must address in the next few years:

  • The need for improved biosecurity throughout all sectors of the industry. THis is being driven by new emerging diseases as well as re-emerging diseases that not only pose a threat to the ornamental fish trade but also to the  aquaculture industry for food fish and invertebrates. Consequently there is increased scrutiny by the regulatory bodies for national and international trade. THis is a truly global issue since ornamental fish are being exported from over 130 different countries.
  • The need to address the issue of aquatic invasive species. There are many animals traded that could have significant invasive potential in many countries. Many of these are banned for import but are often included due to poor quality control at packing or a lack of awareness of the specific regulations and/or risks on the part of the exporters and importers. There is a need for more research characterizing the specific invasive pathways as well as improved outreach and education at all levels when it comes to aquatic invasive species.
  • There is emerging pressure to develop specific guidelines that ensure adequate concern for animal welfare throughout all sectors of the industry. At this point the European Union and Australia appear to be the primary drivers though there are also emerging discussions on this topic in the United Staes as well. It is not inconceivable to envision specific regulations that would require documentation of  adherence to specific welfare guidelines in order for ornamental fish to be exported to some of these countries. This would probably be very much like a health certificate. Obviously, this will be an area of much spirited debate and diplomacy since the definitions of welfare, the perceptions of an actual need for guidelines, and the appropriate methods for guideline development and enforcement vary dramatically across the globe.

These are all weighty issues that will not be addressed overnight. However, it is very important to continue discussions, continue to develop industry solutions and to maintain contact and educate key regulatory bodies about the industry. The key is to remain proactive. The alternative is regulatory requirements developed and implemented with little industry input. Not making a decision to address an issue is a decision but it may not be a very good one in this case.

Biosecurity Practices – Essential Considerations for the Pet Fish Industry: Best Health Practices

I’ve arrived in Singapore but before I post my thoughts related to this trip lets finish up the biosecurity series by discussing  the development of best health practices in the context of  implementing/developing a biosecurity plan. TMM

There are husbandry practices that promote fish health and well being, and in so doing help support the principles and goals of a biosecurity program.  These help assure healthy stock that are free of stress and are in optimal condition to resist infection. We will review a few of the key aspects of a quality fish health management program.

Routine and reliable visual assessment of the fish is essential. This may be the first line of defense against disease outbreaks within the tanks. Staff should constantly be scanning the fish populations and looking for signs of outright disease, as well as signs of distress or abnormal behavior, both of which may be the first signs of an impending disease outbreak. Affected animals should be moved to a hospital tank for observation and treatment.

Fish holding systems should be designed so that fish can be easily viewed and captured, yet still have adequate hiding spaces. There should be no edges or objects within the tanks or ponds which might injure the fish. Further, all tanks and life support systems should be easy to maintain and service. If systems are difficult to access and clean then it is likely that staff will tend to avoid the optimal level of maintenance and cleaning.

Staff should also be encouraged to frequently wash their hands, particularly when moving from work areas in one fish holding system to another. Hand washing stations and footbaths, soap or other appropriate disinfectants, and paper towels should be easily accessible so that they will be used regularly.

Equipment cleaning and disinfection stations must also be easily accessible to ensure regular use.  A schedule for regular changes of disinfectants must also be initiated. Most of the common disinfectants are inactivated by organic materials, so these solutions should be changed promptly if they are discolored or dirty, even if it is prior to the scheduled change.

Ensure that staff adheres to the principles of isolation and independence of systems. Reducing the number of systems connected to a single central filtration unit, limiting movement of fish from tank to tank, and striving to prevent cross-contamination via water borne, airborne and fomite transmission will enhance the isolation of fish holding systems.

Anything that might stress fish should be eliminated or minimized.  It is the responsibility of staff to be vigilant for any signs of stress in the fish as well as any aspect of the husbandry or system design that might contribute to stress.  Fish density, water quality, water flow, and tank/pond sanitation should be continually monitored to assure they remain in optimal ranges or conditions. Fish should be handled as little as possible, and when handled, all precautions must be taken to assure that the fish are minimally stressed and not injured.

Nutrition must not be ignored. Foods should not only provide a balanced diet, but they must be handled and stored appropriately to assure their continued quality. Poor quality, contaminated, or spoiled foods should be discarded. Nutrition-related diseases, whether due to nutrient deficiencies or food contamination, can impact immune function in fish, reducing their resistance to infection, and impacting the success of your biosecurity plan.  Care must be taken to assure that all fish are receiving an adequate and complete diet.  Items to consider include:

  • · Insufficient quantity or intake of food will lead to starvation, causing poor growth, poor survival, increased susceptibility to disease, and a loss of reproductive capacity.
  • · An imbalanced diet due to the feeding of one particular food type to the exclusion of all others may lead to deficiencies of certain essential nutrients with diminished survival.
  • · Many diets may not meet the needs of certain fish species that have specific nutritional needs or feeding behaviors. Special diets or supplementation of commercial diets may be necessary.  Seek guidance from those familiar with husbandry of the species or from the literature.
  • · Be wary of poorly formulated diets. This is a rare problem when good quality, commercially prepared diets are used.
  • · Outdated, spoiled, or improperly stored diets will lose nutritional value, and dietary deficits may occur.  These foods should be discarded (Yanong 2001a, Winfree 1992, Roberts 2001).

Dead or sick fish should be promptly culled and examined by trained staff or veterinarians to identify the cause of death or illness so that corrective and preventative measures and treatments can be started. Routine health monitoring of apparently healthy fish may be considered to identify emerging disease issues within a facility before they become a serious problem.

During the daily work routine, staff should address the needs of the most susceptible fish and their holding facilities first, moving to the fish with the highest probability of carrying disease last. Typically this means that the display fish are cared for first, starting with the youngest and moving to the oldest fish. Then staff go to systems holding fish under quarantine. Finally, any hospitalized fish or fish undergoing treatment are attended to. These workers should not go back and work with display fish until the next day. If not possible, that individual should wash well and perhaps change clothes after working with quarantine and hospital fish. Alternatively, facilities may opt to designate one individual that only works with animals under quarantine and treatment and never works with display or holding fish.

Quality Management

A quality management program (aka quality assurance, quality control) is an integral part of any biosecurity plan. It will help assure that the biosecurity practices that are established for a facility are actually put into place and followed.  It is essential that biosecurity practices are used consistently and accurately, and are not just brought out when they are remembered or might help control a problem.  The quality program will instill a sense of routine to the biosecurity procedures, and will assure that employees use the procedures correctly. It also provides a means of checking and verifying. Quality management concepts should permeate all aspects of the biosecurity protocols.  Quality management is the key to a successful biosecurity program.

The basic components of the quality program include written standard operating procedures, training, record keeping, accountability, and audits.  All are important, and none can be neglected.


A biosecurity program is essential to successful fish production and husbandry. The components of the program address exclusion of pathogens, control of pathogens, and good health practices, and assemble to provide a security system that will help minimize the impact of disease on a fish facility. A successful biosecurity program requires commitment by management and staff to follow operational policies and procedures, continually assess those protocols, and modify them as necessary. A good biosecurity program protects the business by protecting the animals and the customers. Finally, remember that each biosecuity program is tailored to each specific facility. Protocols are developed based upon the diseases risks associated with a particular facility  or market sector, financial and human resources and  facility design limitations.  Remember that implementing some biosecurity protocols is always better than doing nothing. It is always more expensive to implement a biosecuirty plan after a major disease event.

I look forward to your comments.  TMM

Biosecurity Practices: Essential Considerations for the Pet Fish Industry: Pathogen Containment

While the quarantine system is only as strong as its physical components and the management and husbandry protocols in use.  It is an accepted means to prevent introduction of infectious disease into a fish holding facility. Quarantine, coupled to purchasing from reliable sources, provides a strong level of security from introduction of infectious disease.  But despite the best precautions, it is possible for disease to emerge in a facility.  Breaks in biosecurity do occur. Quarantine failures, contaminated materials, failure to adhere to biosecurity, and simple accidents may result in delivery of pathogens or infected fish into a pristine tank. Managers must be prepared to deal with this situation, working to contain and eliminate the disease from the operation, and conducting a trace back investigation to determine the cause of the biosecurity break.

The methods of containment and elimination of pathogens in a facility are entwined with concepts and procedures that promote fish health and well-being. It is important to promote procedures that will assure the highest level of health in the fish, offering them the best chance to resist infection and disease by pathogens that have entered or persisted in the holding system.

Development of proper pathogen containment protocols requires and understanding of the key modes of pathogen persistence and transmission within an ornamental fish facility.

Pathogen persistence within the facility

Pathogen containment must address the persistence of pathogens within the facility. There are places in a fish holding system in which introduced pathogens may survive and perhaps even multiply. If not recognized and addressed, these persistent organisms will continue to deliver infectious agents throughout a tank or facility.

Consideration of pathogen persistence should include:

  • Fish can be asymptomatic carriers of disease. THey carry a disease, show no signs of that disease but may infect other fish in the system.
  • Dead and diseased fish, invertebrates, and plants may serve as pathogen reservoirs.
  • The water and the life support system can also harbor pathogens. When water quality is poor, some pathogens can multiply in the water column and, if the systems are interconnected, can spread throughout multiple tanks or ponds.
  • Pathogens can accumulate in the areas where water and dirt accumulate and  are not easy to clean, disinfect and dry. These would include uncoated or cracked concrete, wooden tank supports, covers and tabletops, gravel pathways and low spots in the floor that are poorly drained. The use of non-porous surfaces, or waterproof epoxy coatings on porous surfaces, may help to eliminate such risks.
  • Pathogens can also accumulate on equipment that is not properly cleaned and disinfected between uses.

Routes of pathogen transmission

Once established in a tank, pathogens can be moved to other tanks, systems, or facilities in several ways.  These may mirror the mechanisms that allowed entry of the organism into the facility. This movement can be even more pronounced during a disease outbreak. It is important to consider these routes of pathogen dispersal and some approaches to mitigate these risks.

  • Waterborne transmission: Pathogens can persist in water, some for extended periods. This is a concern with respect to incoming water as well as in-place system water. System water can be contaminated through use of untreated or unprotected water sources.  This contaminated water then serves as a reservoir for pathogens within the facility. Proper treatment of the water, through mechanical filtration, chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light, or ozone treatment can destroy potential pathogens carried in the water column.
  • Airborne transmission: Airborne transmission of fish pathogens has significant potential for the spread of fish diseases, especially in facilities where holding tanks or ponds are in close proximity without benefit of solid covers or substantial dividers. Water splashing, whether from cascading water, moving equipment, or surface agitation from pumps or aeration, produces water droplets that can be contaminated with pathogens, forming mists that settle over adjacent surfaces, contaminating adjacent tanks or ponds. Drafts or ventilation airflow from open windows, doors, or fans can exacerbate the problem, pushing these water droplets even further.  The risks of airborne transmission can be greatly reduced through the use of solid tank covers and/or splash guards between tanks. In addition, careful attention to splash reduction from pumps or cascades, or when installing or moving equipment or fish will further reduce the risk of aerosol transmission.
  • Vector transmission: Vectors are living organisms that may harbor and transmit pathogens from one fish to another. Examples in the aquatic environment include the crustacean parasite Argulus sp. and some species of leeches. Pathogens harbored by these vectors can be deposited on or within fish, and disease may follow.  Vectors often cause disease in their own right. Prevention of vector transmission is best achieved through control of the vectors themselves, either during quarantine or via prompt identification and control in the display or holding system.
  • Fomite Transmission: Fomites are inanimate objects on which pathogens can be transmitted from location to location. This can include equipment used in a facility as well as staff and visitors.  Pathogen transmission via fomites usually occurs by sharing equipment between tanks or systems without proper cleaning and disinfection after each use. To prevent this, they must be properly handled and disinfected. Each tank, isolated system, quarantine facility, and site should have its own set of equipment and instruments, including nets, totes, buckets, brushes, scrapers, siphons, and pumps. In addition, each area should have its own cleaning, disinfection, and drying station.
  • Pathogen transmission in the feed: Fish foods, whether live, fresh, or frozen, carry the potential for disease transmission if contaminated by pathogens or toxins. All foods must be of the highest quality and obtained from reputable sources that understand the importance of proper feed manufacturing and storage. Just as with newly arrived fish, live foods should be quarantined, examined and treated for any identified diseases before they are used. Fresh and frozen food should be of high quality and not show any signs of spoilage or decay. Commercial feeds should be purchased in lots that can typically be fed out in 6 months, broken up into small packages for weekly or daily use, and properly stored. Feeds should not be fed if they are damp, moldy, or have a foul odor.

Your comments are always welcome. I’d be particularly interested in comments/experiences about various approaches to pathogen containment large import and/or production facilities.  In the next post I’ll share some of our thoughts about implementing biosecurity into a fish health management program. TMM

Biosecurity Practices – Essential Considerations for the Pet Fish Industry: Pathogen Exclusion

This post is really aimed at the retailer but the basic principles can be applied in all segments of the industry. Again, the specific approaches to biosecurity  must be tailored to the actual risks, needs and capability of each facility. TMM

The goal of pathogen exclusion is to prevent the entrance of an infectious agent into a facility, thereby preventing infection and possibly disease in a group of fish.  To accomplish this, you must recognize and understand the various routes by which an infectious agent can enter a pristine fish tank or pond. This allows you to plan defensive measures that will block that entry.

Fish-associated entry:

An obvious route of entry of pathogens into a facility is via the incoming fish. These animals may be asympotmatic carriers of a pathogen, or may have frank disease. It can be very difficult to determine if one is receiving healthy fish, and rarely can a manager be totally confident that the fish he has received are in fact healthy. To help minimize opportunities for diseased fish to enter a facility, owners/managers must scrutinize potential suppliers before fish are purchased or shipped.

Water-associated entry:

The presence and persistence of pathogens in water makes this medium a potential source of pathogen entry into a fish facility.  Water supply is a major consideration when designing a biosecurity program based upon pathogen exclusion.

Food-associated entry:

Fish food can not only serve as a source of pathogens, but poor, contaminated or spoiled diets can compromise the fish and make them more susceptible to infection by pathogens.  In most cases, good quality commercial diets will satisfy the basic nutritional requirements of ornamental fish, and are unlikely to host infectious agents.  As with fish suppliers, one should consider reputation and history of service when selecting food suppliers.  The food should be carefully inspected to ensure that there is no spoilage.  Live foods deserve special consideration as there is a higher potential for harboring pathogens, and caution is warranted.  Pretreatment or quarantine of the live food animals may be considered.

Person-associated entry:

The people that enter a facility, whether staff or customers, should be considered in a biosecurity plan as they can be a source of pathogen introduction as well as pathogen persistence.  Obviously, these people cannot be excluded from the facility, but the risks they pose can be managed.

Quarantine to prevent pathogen entry

Quarantine is critical to preventing introduction of pathogens into a facility. Quarantine also provides for the important process of acclimation of fish to new water conditions, new husbandry protocols, and new feeds.  Furthermore, the quarantine system and quarantine period allows time for the fish immune system to recuperate from the stresses of transport and handling.

All new fish that arrive at a facility should be quarantined.  Fish from separate sources should be quarantined separately. Additionally, any fish that have had contact with fish or water from other facilities, that are wild-caught or farm-raised, or have been returned to the facility by customers should also be quarantined before they are mixed with holding or display stock. Finally, many plants and invertebrates are capable of carrying potential fish disease agents including intermediate stages of many common fish parasites. Therefore it is wise to quarantine all plants and invertebrates in separate quarantine systems.

Quarantine Facilities and Systems

A quarantine facility should be distinct from the retail, wholesale, or import facility.  It can be located in a separate building or within a room adjacent to the main fish holding area, physically separated by a closed door and footbath.  Quarantine facilities should have designated equipment that is not used outside the quarantine area. Access to this facility is restricted to those employees assigned to this work area.  The restricted access to the quarantine area should be clearly emphasized by appropriate and well-placed signage, limiting access to those properly trained and authorized to be in that area.

Figure 1. illustrates the features of a quarantine system as well as the recommended movement of fish through the ornamental fish facility.

Figure 1. Recommended flow of fish through a quarantine facility at an ornamental fish retail establishment. The figure reiterates some of the important questions and issues a facility manager must consider in order to prevent disease introduction and propagation within a facility. These same considerations would be generally applicable within any ornamental fish enterprise.

The duration of quarantine is generally based upon the life-cycle of the most common disease organisms found in the fish species of interest. A quarantine period of 2-4 weeks at the optimal temperature is often recommended. The authors generally recommend a 4-week quarantine as a minimum for most species of fish, although many veterinarians would recommend 60-90 days of quarantine for many cool-water pond fish. However, this duration may not be practical for many businesses.  If a retailer is unable to complete recommended quarantine periods, they should strongly urge their customers to establish their own quarantine in the above fashion for the recommended period of time.

As the fish progress through the quarantine period, diseases may emerge, and treatment rather than culling of the affected fish may be considered. During quarantine fish must be examined daily. Dead or sick fish should be promptly culled and examined by trained staff or veterinarians to identify the cause of death or illness so that corrective and preventative measures and/or treatments can be started. When possible routine health monitoring of apparently healthy fish may be considered to identify emerging disease issues within a facility before they become a serious problem. Such monitoring may include: physical examination, skin scrapes, gill biopsies, fecal examinations, bacteriology, serology, molecular diagnostics and/or necropsy depending on the species and potential disease risks.

Your comments are always welcome. I’d be particularly interested in comments/experiences about implementing pathogen exclusion approaches at large import and/or production facilities.  In the next post I’ll discuss the principles of pathogen containment. TMM

Biosecurity Practices – Essential Considerations for the Pet Fish Industry: An Introduction

Biosecurity has become an emerging issue within the ornamental fish industry. We are seeing increased discussions of  biosecurity concepts at the industry , veterinary and regulatory level. OFI has recently publish a book on biosecurity and there is chapter on biosecurity in the new book, Fundamentals of Ornamental Fish Health.  As I travel around  and visist ornamental fish facilities within the United states and internationally I am alsways interested  in learning about different approaches to biosecurity and fish health management. With my upcoming travels to Singapore and Malaysia I thought it would be a good time to begin a series of discussions about biosecurity from our perspective here at OSU. What follows are some thoughts developed by myself and my colleague, Dr. Jerry Heidel.

What is biosecurity?

Biosecurity consists of the practices and procedures used to prevent the introduction, emergence, spread, and persistence of infectious agents and disease within and around fish production and holding facilities. Furthermore, these practices help eliminate conditions that can enhance disease susceptibility among the fish. In short, biosecurity precautions are put in place to exclude and contain fish pathogens. Biosecurity practices are applicable to all levels of the ornamental fish industry: producers, wholesalers, retailers, and hobbyists.   Proper use of biosecurity measures will help prevent introduction of infectious disease in a fish facility, and will also help minimize the risk of diseases being passed from producer to hobbyist.

As import-export regulations for ornamental fish become increasingly stringent on a global level, veterinarians may be called upon to assist ornamental fish facilities in the planning and implementation of biosecurity programs. We will present a brief overview of the major considerations that should be taken into account when developing a biosecurity program for an ornamental fish facility.

Basic biosecurity procedures are uniform across the industry, but the biosecurity plan will be tailored to meet the special needs of each business.  As the scope, needs, and finances of the business change, the facility manager will modify and adjust biosecurity measures accordingly, yet maintain the basic tenets of good biosecurity practices.

Designing and implementing biosecurity practices can be simplified if we consider some basic themes: pathogen exclusion, pathogen containment, and basic best health practices. We will consider the elements of each, and show how these elements will allow you to hinder access of pathogens to a facility, control the spread of pathogens that may emerge, and promote high health and disease resistance among the fish in the facility. The overlap of practices addressing these themes will become evident.

Next we will discuss basic concepts of pathogen exclusion, pathogen containment and finally best health practices. I look forward to your discussions. TMM

Views of Ornamental fish farming in India

I’ve been back from my trip to India and lsrael for a bit over two months  but until now winding down the quarter has kept me from posting about this trip.

I travelled to India to attend the Asia Pacific Aquaculture Conference held in Kochin. While there I gave three papers related to industry development and training. Perhaps I will provide more on that at a later date.

I had the opportunity to visit some fish farms in the beautiful backwaters of Kerala. These were primarily polyculture operations, rice and fish or rice and prawns. I then had the opportunity to travel with Mr. Krishna Dey and Dr.  Narayanan, two private consultants to the ornamental fish industry in India. Mr. Dey arranged for me to meet with representatives from the Kerala Ornamental Fish Farmers Association (KOFFA) and tour some of their facilities in the hills above Kochin. There are about 200 tropical fish farms in Kerala with a focus on many common freshwater ornamental fish and ornamental aquatic plants. There are also a number of native fishes that are collected in the wild or cultured. THese are being exported in low numbers or being developed for export. I hope to have a guest blog on this in the future. At this point most of the local production is going into the domestic market but the industry is working towards building its export capacity.

While touring these facilities Mr. Dey, Dr. Narayanan and myself had the opportunity to film a short educational video that will be released to the local association. The video followed an interview/discussion format between myself , Dr. Narayanan and Mr. Dey as we discussed emerging health issues and principles of health management at each of the facilities. This culminated in a group discussion between the three of us as well as Mr. Rajan Punnoose, Vice President of the KOFFA and Mr. Joy Joseph past president of the KOFFA. The setting was the  beautiful garden at Mr. Joy’s home and fish farm/hatchery. I hope to make the video available on this blog in the near future.

I’ve included some images from this trip. I hope you enjoy the tour. I’ll post some images and thoughts about the Israel leg in a few days.

Backwaters of Kerala
Rice Fields
Prawn pond with rice in the background

Backwaters scenes, sunrise

Cultured freshwater prawns
Enjoying the stop, rice field in the background
Houseboats on the backwaters of Kerala
Backwaters scenes

Backwaters scenes, sunrise

Backwaters scenes, sunrise