Smyth, W.D. and J.R. Carpenter, 2019, “Instability in Geophysical Flows”, Cambridge University Press.

Smyth, W.D., 2018, All Things Flow: Fluid Mechanics for the Natural Sciences“, Oregon State University Open Textbook.


Liu, C.-L., A.K. Kaminski, W.D. Smyth, 2023: “Turbulence and mixing from neighbouring stratified shear layers”, J. Fluid Mech. (in press).

Pham, H., S. Sarkar, W.D. Smyth, J.N. Moum, S. Warner, 2023: “Deep-cycle turbulence in the upper Pacific Equatorial Ocean: characterization by LES and heat flux parameterization”, J. Phys. Oceanog. 54 (2), 577-599.

Moum, J.N., W.D. Smyth, K.G. Hughes, E.L. Shroyer, D. Cherian S.J, Warner, B.Bourlès, P. Brandt, M. Dengler, 2023: “Wind dependencies of deep cycle turbulence in the equatorial cold tongues”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 53 (8),

Liu, C.-L., A.K. Kaminski, W.D. Smyth, 2023: “The effects of boundary proximity on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and turbulence”, J. Fluid Mech. 966, A2.

Smyth, W.D., S.D. Mayor and Q. Lian, 2023: “The role of ambient turbulence in canopy wave generation by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability”, Boundary Layer Met.

Liu, C.-L., A.K. Kaminski, W.D. Smyth, 2022: “The butterfly effect and the transition to turbulence in a stratified shear layer”, J. Fluid Mech. 953, A43. doi:10.1017/jfm.2022.985.

Tu J., D. Fan, F. Sun, A. Kaminski, W.D. Smyth, 2022: “Shear instabilities and stratified turbulence in an estuarine fluid mud”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 52 (10), 2257-2271.

Tu, J., D. Fan, Z. Liu, W.D. Smyth, 2022: “Scaling the mixing efficiency of sediment-stratified turbulence”, Geophys. Res. Lett. 49 (13)

Moum, J.N., K.G. Hughes, E.L. Shroyer, W.D. Smyth, D. Cherian, S.J. Warner, B. Bourles, P. Brandt, M. Dengler, 2022: “Deep cycle turbulence in Atlantic and Pacific cold tongues”, Geophys. Res. Lett. 49, e2021GL097345.

Smyth, W.D., S. Warner, J.N. Moum, H. Pham, S. Sarkar, 2021:  “What controls the deep cycle? Proxies for equatorial turbulence”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 51, 2291-2302.

Hughes, K, J.N. Moum, E. Shroyer, W.D. Smyth, 2021:  “Stratified shear instabilities in diurnal warm layers”, J. Phys. Oceanogr.  51 (8), 2583-2598.


Liu, C., X. Wang, Z. Liu, A. Kohl, W.D. Smyth, F. Wang, 2020: “On the formation of a subsurface weakly sheared laminar layer and an upper thermocline strongly sheared turbulent layer in the eastern equatorial Pacific: interplays of multiple time scale equatorial wave”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 50, 2907-2930.

Smyth, W.D., 2020: “Marginal instability and the efficiency of ocean mixing”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 50 (8), 2141-2150.

Lian, Q. , Z. Liu, W.D. Smyth, 2020: “Numerical computation of instabilities and internal waves from in situ measurements via the viscous Taylor-Goldstein problem”, J. Atm. Oc. Tech. 37 759-776. [Lian_Smyth_Liu20.pdf]

Tu, J., D. Fan, Q. Lian, Z. Liu, W. Liu, A. Kaminski, W.D. Smyth, 2020: “Acoustic observations of Kelvin-Helmholtz billows on an estuarine lutocline”, J. Geophys. Res. 125 (4) , e2019JC015383.[PDF]

Liu, C., X. Wang, Z. Liu, A. Kohl, Z. Liu, W.D. Smyth, F. Wang, 2019: “The subsurface mode tropical instability waves in the equatorial Pacific ocean and their impacts on shear and mixing”, Geophys. Res. Lett. 46 (21) , 12270-12278 [Liu_etal_19_deep_TIWs.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., J.D. Nash & J.N. Moum, 2019: “Self-organized criticality in geophysical turbulence”, Nature Sci. Rep. 9, 3747.

Kaminski, A. and W.D. Smyth, 2019: “Stratified shear instability in a field of pre-existing turbulence”, J. Fluid Mech. 862, 639-658. [Kaminski_Smyth19.pdf]

Pujiana, K., J.N. Moum, W.D. Smyth, 2018: “The role of subsurface turbulence in redistributing upper ocean heat, freshwater and momentum in response to the MJO in the equatorial Indian ocean”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 48, 197-220.

Pham, H.T., W.D. Smyth, S. Sarkar and J.N. Moum, 2017: “Seasonality of deep cycle turbulence in the eastern equatorial Pacific”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 47, 2189-2209. [Pham_Smyth_Sarkar_Moum17_Seasonality.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., Pham, H.T., J.N. Moum and S. Sarkar, 2017: “Pulsating turbulence in a marginally unstable stratified shear flow”, J. Fluid Mech. 822, 327-341. [Smyth_etal17_Pulsating_turbulence.pdf]

Mashayek, A., H. Salehipour, D. Bouffard, C. Caulfield , R. Ferrari , M. Nikurashin, , W. Peltier, W.D. Smyth, 2017: “Efficiency of turbulent mixing in the abyssal ocean circulation”, Geophys. Res. Lett. 44, 6296-6306.

Moum, J.N., K. Pujiana, R.-C. Lien and W.D. Smyth, 2016: “Oceanic Feedback to Pulses of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in the Equatorial Indian Ocean”, Nature Comm. 19 October, 2016, DOI 10.1038/NCOMMS13203. [ ]

Hoecker-Martinez, M.S., W.D. Smyth and E.D. Skyllingstad, 2016: “Oceanic turbulent energy budget using large eddy simulation of a wind event during DYNAMO”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 46, 827-840. [Hoecker-Martinez_Smyth_Skyllingstad16.pdf]

Umlauf, L., W.D. Smyth and J.N. Moum, 2015: “Energetics of bottom Ekman layers during buoyancy arrest”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 45, 3099-3117.

Pujiana, D, J.N. Moum, W.D. Smyth, S.J. Warner, 2015: “Distinguishing ichthyogenic turbulence from geophysical turbulence”, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120, 3792-3804.

Li, L., W.D. Smyth and S.A. Thorpe, 2015: “Destabilization of a stratified shear layer by ambient turbulence”, J. Fluid Mech. 771, 1-15. [PDF]

Smyth, W.D., T. Durland and J.N. Moum, 2014: “Energy and heat fluxes due to vertically-propagating Yanai waves observed in the equatorial Indian Ocean”, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120, doi:10.1002/2014JC010152. [PDF]

Moum, J.N., S.P. DeSzoeke, W.D. Smyth, J.B. Edson, H.L. DeWitt, A.J. Moulin, E.J. Thompson, C.J. Zappa, S.A. Rutledge, R.H. Johnson and C.W. Fairall, 2014: “Air-Sea Interactions from Westerly Wind Bursts during the November 2011 MJO in the Indian Ocean”, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 95, 1185-1199. [moum14_bams-d-12-00225.1-4.pdf]

Smyth, W.D. and J.N. Moum, 2013: “Marginal instability and deep cycle turbulence in the eastern equatorial Pacific ocean”, Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 1–5, doi:10.1002/2013GL058403. [Smyth_Moum13_MI.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., J.N. Moum, L. Li and S.A. Thorpe, 2013: “Shear instability, the descent of the diurnal mixing layer, and the deep cycle of equatorial turbulence”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 43, 2432-2455. [Smyth_etal13_JPO.pdf]

Thorpe, S.A., W.D. Smyth and L. Li, 2013: “The effect of small viscosity and diffusivity on the marginal  stability of stably stratified shear flows”, J. Fluid Mech.,731, 461-476. [Thorpe_Smyth_Li13_JFM.pdf]

Smyth, W.D. and J.N. Moum, 2012: “Ocean mixing by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability”, Oceanography 5(2):140–149. 

Smyth, W.D. and S.A. Thorpe, 2012: “Glider measurements of overturning in a Kelvin-Helmholtz billow train”, J. Mar. Res. 70, 119-140. [Smyth_Thorpe12.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., H. Burchard and L. Umlauf, 2012: “Baroclinic interleaving instability: a second-moment closure approach”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 42764-784. [Smyth_Burchard_Umlauf12.pdf]

Liu, Z., S.A. Thorpe and W.D. Smyth, 2012: Instability and hydraulics of turbulent stratified shear flows, J. Fluid Mech. 695, 235-256. [Liu_Thorpe_Smyth_2012.pdf]

Hoecker-Martinez, M.S. and W.D. Smyth, 2012: “Trapping of gyrotactic organisms in an unstable shear layer”, Continental Shelf Res. 36, 8-18. [Hoecker-Martinez_Smyth_2012.pdf]

Kimura, S., W.D. Smyth and E. Kunze 2011: “Turbulence in a sheared, salt-fingering-favorable environment: Anisotropy and effective diffusivities”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 41, 1144-1159. [Kimura_Smyth_Kunze_JPO11.pdf]

Smyth, W.D. and S. Kimura, 2011: “Mixing in a moderately sheared, salt fingering layer”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 41, 1361-1381. [Smyth_Kimura_JPO2011.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., J.N. Moum and J.D. Nash, 2011: “Narrowband, high-frequency oscillations at the equator. Part II: Properties of shear instabilities”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 41, 412-428. [NB_waves_PartII_Smyth_11.pdf]

Moum, J.N., J.D. Nash and W.D. Smyth, 2011: “Narrowband, high-frequency oscillations at the equator. Part I: Interpretation as shear instabilities”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 41, 397-411. [NB_waves_PartI_Moum_11.pdf]

Kimura, S. and W.D. Smyth, 2011: “Secondary instability of salt sheets”, J. Mar. Res. 69, 57-77. [Kimura_Smyth_JMR11.pdf]


Smyth, W.D. and B. Ruddick, 2010: “Effects of ambient turbulence on interleaving at a baroclinic front”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 40, 685-712. [Smyth_Ruddick10.pdf]

Inoue, R. and W.D. Smyth, 2009: “Efficiency of mixing forced by unsteady shear flow”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 39, 1150-1166. [Inoue_Smyth09.pdf]

Burchard, H., P.D. Craig, J.R. Gemmrich, H. van Haren, P.-P. Matheiu, H.E.M. Meier, W.A.M. Nimmo Smith, H. Prandke, T.P. Rippeth, E.D. Skyllingstad, W.D. Smyth, D.J.S. Welsh and H.W. Wijesekera 2008  “Observational and numerical modeling methods for quantifying coastal ocean turbulence and mixing”,   Prog. Oceanogr. 76, 399-442. [burchardetal_pio_2008_published.pdf]

Smyth, W.D.,  2008: “Instabilities of a baroclinic, double diffusive frontal zone”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 38 (4), 840-861. [Smyth08_baro_int.pdf]

Kimura, S. and W.D. Smyth, 2007:  “Direct numerical simulation of salt sheets and turbulence in a double-diffusive shear layer”,  Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L21610, doi:10.1029/2007GL031935. [2007GL031935.pdf]

Mueller, R.D., W.D. Smyth, and B. Ruddick 2007:  “Shear and convective turbulence in a model of thermohaline intrusions”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 37, 2534-2549. [MuellerEtAl2007_JPO.pdf]

Moum, J.N., J.M. Klymak. J.D. Nash, A. Perlin and W.D. Smyth 2007: “Energy transport in nonlinear internal waves”, J. Phys. Oceanogr.  37, 1968-1988. [Moum_etal_07_energy_transport.pdf]

Moum, J.N., D.M. Farmer, E.L. Shroyer, W.D. Smyth, L. Armi 2007: “Dissipative losses in nonlinear internal waves propagating across the continental shelf”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 37 (7) 1989-1995. [Moum_etal_07_dissipative_losses.pdf]

Smyth, W.D. and S. Kimura, 2007: “Instability and diapycnal momentum transport in a double diffusive, stratified shear layer”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 37 (6), 1551-1565. [Smyth_Kimura07_KH-SS_linear.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., J.R. Carpenter and G.A. Lawrence 2007: “Mixing in symmetric Holmboe waves”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 37 (6) 1566-1583. [Smyth_etal_07_Holmboe_mixing_symmetric.pdf]

Carpenter, J.R., G.A. Lawrence and W.D. Smyth 2007: “Evolution and mixing of asymmetric Holmboe instabilities”, J. Fluid Mech. 582, 103-132. [jfm_mix_r3.pdf]

Smyth, W.D.,  2006: “Secondary circulations in Holmboe waves”, Phys. Fluids 18, 064104. [Holmboe_3d_preprint.pdf]

Moum, J.D. and W.D. Smyth, 2006: “The pressure disturbance of a nonlinear internal wave train”, J. Fluid Mech. 558, 153-177. [nonhydro_jfm_rev2.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., J.D Nash and J.N. Moum, 2005: “Differential diffusion in breaking Kelvin-Helmholtz billows”, J. Phys. Oceanogr35 (6), 1004-1022. [diff2_Smyth_Nash_Moum_2005_JPO.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., R.A. Hart and P.J. Reimer 2005: “Pleistocene forests preserved in Oregon coast sediments”, EOS, Transactions. 86 (1) 2-3. [Smyth_Hart_Reimer05_EOS.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., 2004: “Kelvin-Helmholtz billow evolution from a localized source”, Q. J. R. Met. Soc130, 2753-2766. [KH_patch_pre.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., 2003: “Secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in weakly stratified, sheared flow”, J. Fluid Mech. 497, 67-98. [Smyth03_JFM.pdf]

Moum, J.N., D.M. Farmer, W.D. Smyth, L. Armi and S. Vagle, 2003: “Structure and generation of turbulence at interfaces strained by solitary waves propagating shoreward over the continental shelf ”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 33 (10) 2093-2112. [Moum03_soli.pdf]

Smyth, W.D. and K.B. Winters, 2003: “Turbulence and mixing in Holmboe waves”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 33 (4), 694-711. [holmboe.pdf]

Smyth, W.D. and J.N. Moum, 2002 “Shear instability and gravity wave saturation in an asymmetrically stratified jet”, Dyn. Atm. Oceans 35 (3) 265-294. [EUC.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., E.D. Skyllingstad, G.B. Crawford, and H. Wijesekera, 2002: “Nonlocal fluxes and Stokes drift effects in the K-profile parameterization”, Ocean Dynamics 52 (3), 104-115. [Smyth02_KPP.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., J.N. Moum and D.R. Caldwell, 2001: “The efficiency of mixing in turbulent patches: inferences from direct simulations and microstructure observations.”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 31, 1969-1992. [Smyth_Moum_Caldwell01_gamma.pdf]

Smyth, W.D. and J.N. Moum, 2001: “3D Turbulence”, Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, Academic Press. [OceanTurbulence.pdf]

Moum, J.N. and W.D. Smyth, 2001: “Upper Ocean Mixing”, Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, Academic Press. [UpOcMixing.pdf]


Skyllingstad, E.D., W.D. Smyth and G.B. Crawford, 2000: “Resonant wind-driven mixing in the ocean boundary layer”, J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30, 1866-1890. [Skylling_etal00.pdf]

Smyth, W.D. and J.N. Moum, 2000: “Anisotropy of turbulence in stably stratified mixing layers.”, Phys. Fluids 12, 1343-1362. [Smyth_Moum_00_isotropy.pdf]

Smyth, W.D. and J.N. Moum, 2000: “Length scales of turbulence in stably stratified mixing layers.”, Phys. Fluids 12, 1327-1342. [Smyth_Moum_00_lensc.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., 1999: “Dissipation range geometry and scalar mixing in sheared, stratified turbulence”, J. Fluid Mech. 401, 209-242. [smyth99_JFM.pdf]

Skyllingstad, E.D., W.D. Smyth, J.N. Moum and H. Wijesekera, 1999: “Turbulent dissipation during a Westerly wind burst: A comparison of large-eddy simulation results and microstructure measurements”. J. Phys. Oceanogr29 5-29. [Skylling_etal99.pdf]

Smyth, W.D. and J.C. McWilliams, 1998: “Instability of an axisymmetric vortex in a stably stratified, rotating environment”, Theor. Comp. Fluid Dyn. 11 305-322. [Smyth_McWilliams98.pdf]

Sun, C., W.D. Smyth and J.N. Moum, 1998, “Dynamic instability of stratified shear flow in the upper equatorial Pacific”, J. Geophys. Res. 103 10323-10337. [Sun_etal98_JGR.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., P.O. Zavialov and J.N. Moum, 1997: “Decay of turbulence in the upper ocean following sudden isolation from surface forcing”. J. Phys. Oceanogr27 810-822. [Smyth_Zavialov_Moum97.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., D. Hebert and J.N. Moum 1996: “Local ocean response to a multiphase westerly windburst. Part 1: the dynamic response”. J. Geophys. Res. 101 (C10) 22495-22512. [SHM_JGR_Part1.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., D. Hebert and J.N. Moum 1996: “Local ocean response to a multiphase westerly windburst. Part 2: thermal and freshwater responses”. J. Geophys. Res101 (C10) 22513-22533. [SHM_JGR_Part2.pdf]

Skyllingstad, E.D., T. Paluskiewicz, D.W. Denbo and W.D. Smyth, 1996: “Nonlinear vertical mixing processes in the ocean: modeling and parameterization”. Physica D 98, 574-593.

Smyth, W.D. and W. R. Peltier 1994: “Three-dimensionalization of barotropic vortices on the f-plane”, J. Fluid Mech. 265, 25-64. [Smyth_Peltier_JFM94.pdf]

Smyth, W.D. and W. R. Peltier 1993: “Two-dimensional turbulence in homogeneous and stratified shear layers”, Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dynamics 69, 1-32.

Smyth, W.D. 1992: “Spectral transfers in two-dimensional anisotropic flow”, Phys. Fluids A 4, 340-349. [Smyth92_PFlA.pdf]

Smyth, W.D. and W. R. Peltier 1991: “Instability and transition in finite amplitude Kelvin-Helmholtz and Holmboe waves”, J. Fluid Mech. 228, 387-415. [Smyth_Peltier_JFM91.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., G. P. Klaassen and W. R. Peltier 1990: “The nonlinear evolution of Holmboe waves”, in Stratified Flows, E. J. List and G. H. Jurka, eds., pp. 45-54. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 1111 pp.

Smyth, W.D. and W. R. Peltier 1990: “Three – dimensional primary instabilities of stratified, dissipative parallel flow”, Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dynamics 52, 249-261.

Smyth, W.D. and W. R. Peltier 1989: “The transition between Kelvin-Helmholtz and Holmboe instability: An investigation of the overreflection hypothesis”, J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3698-3720. [Smyth_Peltier_JAS89.pdf]

Smyth, W.D., G. P. Klaassen, and W. R. Peltier 1988: “Finite amplitude Holmboe waves”, Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dynamics 43, 181-222.

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