Writing Exercise #7

Potential factors that could affect the mother or infant microbial communities.

Positive exposure factors-

  • Beta diversity: increased in this kind of bacteria during the 3rd trimester that leads to fecal cytokines, insulin insensitivity, and weight gain that are positive towards the baby’s growth
  • Breastfeeding: the human milk microbiome is largely diverse and can establish a starting microbiome for the baby; what the mother eats, and her weight can influence this
  • Probiotic administration: can reduce the incidence of allergy; can also alleviate complications

Positive or negative factors-

  • BMI: this value has been studied to alter the microbiota composition
  • Mode of birth: vaginally delivered babies have colonization first from bacteria of the maternal vagina and gut bacteria; meanwhile, c-section births exhibit delayed colonization and higher abundance of antibiotic-resistance genes. In conclusion, vaginal deliveries are associated with more diversity of the microbiome in newborns.
  • Immune state: the immune system state of the mother can affect the oral cavity microbiota thus affecting what is transferred to the baby
  • Hormone exposure: can alter the growth of the microbiome; this hormone changes have to do with metabolic state and mother’s hormonal regulation
  • Diet change: solid food that can mature the gut microbiome

Negative exposure factors-

  • Malnutrition: within the mother or newborn can affect the microbiome development during pregnancy or early infancy
  • Formula: can affect the infant’s oral microbiome if no proper (further test are needed to analyze the negative effects)
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