Week 9: Reflection

I have obtained knowledge from this course and through contributing to Wikipedia over the last few months. The readings and exploring Wikipedia more in depth has given me more insight to how systems are in play that marginalize many. These systems of oppression not only harm and violate women’s basic human rights, they impair the livelihood of social locations not deemed as normal or desirable. If you are a white, hetero, able-bodied, middle-class, gender conforming man you hit the genetic $jackpot$. However, we know that the world’s population is incredibly more diverse than that.

Learning more in detail about these infrastructures I will now be able to navigate them differently. When regarding politics I will be sure to vote carefully. To be supportive of candidates that value intersectional approaches to solve issues at hand with everyone’s best interests in mind. Another way I will continue you create change via institutions is to contribute donations and time to organizations that work very hard to dismantle biogot ideals. Organizations such as Planned Parenthood.

In a more at home approach I am now more mindful of ways institutions in place oppress not only women but people of color, with disabilities, and the people of the LGBTQI+ community. With this knowledge I can be more understanding and challenge these unjust notions by being more of an ally to all.

Working with Wikipedia was more tedious than I initially thought it would be. However, over time it became easier to navigate. I learned that contributions from many editors can create impressing and educational works. Overall, I enjoyed learning how to contribute to Wikipedia. It felt good to be adding small tidbits here are there to a much bigger project.

Week 8: Disability Justice

Disability justice is a system that represents the minority class of disabled/impaired individuals, combats ableism (and other -isms) and intersects with other social locations. Social locations such as, race, gender, class, sexuality, etc. It is important to note that disability justice’s intersectional approach is also anti-capitalist. Capitalism view people and their productivity as a commodity. Many people with impairment struggled with obtaining employment before the ADA was enacted in 1990. Disability justice must be embedded into accessibility laws to solidify equitable and equal access to opportunities. This can be implemented by seeing through an intersectional lens. Knowing, understanding, and respecting each other is the route to breaking down marginalization, discrimination, and bias. People with impairments are a “minority status that is not shameful” (Bryan 475) nor should ever be seen as shameful. They are a “very important cog in the wheel of American life” (Bryan 476) and should have all the same human rights and access to this world as an able bodied person.

The social model of disability is one that challenges the prejudice attitudes of ableism. It questioned in which ways our society functions, often placing many barriers in place to limit people with impairments. The social model takes into account the personal experiences of people with disabilities and uses them to make the world a more accessible place. Having more accessibility means allowing people with impairments more independence and freedom to live their lives how they choose to. An example of a social model would be ramps into buildings, making it wheelchair accessible.

The medical model views people with impairments by their disability, what it “wrong” with them. This model’s approach is how can we “fix” them even if they aren’t suffering in pain or are at peace with their impairment. This model created low expectations which is very hurtful and demeaning. Often this perception reduces the quality of life of the individual.


Adams, Maurice. Readings for Diversity and Social Justice. Routledge, 2010.

Berne, Patricia, et al. “Ten Principles of Disability Justice.” WSQ: Women’s Studies Quarterly, vol. 46 no. 1, 2018, p. 227-230. Project MUSEdoi:10.1353/wsq.2018.0003.

Week 6 Blog Update:

The US media and entertainment industry represents chic by pushing a certain image to the masses. With the help of social media; companies such as Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, etc. we are all at the mercy of it’s cookie cutter idea of “cool.” Especially when it is constantly in front of our faces.

Regarding to gender in media, women are pressured on how they present themselves. You have to be flawless and sexy to be determined worthy. However, don’t forget that oozing sex appeal will result in backlash. Too much skin you are deemed a thirsty, attention seeking whore. How’s a girl to succeed with such opposing criteria.

Many of US social media influencers are highly criticized for their appropriation of minority groups. White instagram models dress up in feather headdresses claiming it is “cool” and post photos from there *insert festival name here.* It leaves a very negative taste in mouths when white women appropriate minority’s cultures when they don’t show respect or advocate for those people. Being the sexy Indian, feathers and all in disrespectful to Native Americans who have suffered greatly at the hands of colonialism. Another is example is when white women began to wear certain styles of braids because they saw a celebrity doing it. It is hurtful to many black women because they take so much pride in their hairstyles. When white women wear braids they don’t have to carry the baggage of marginalization and oppression that a person of color does.

When it come to sexuality and how the media utilizes it as hip, I think is more a newer issue. Within media we have negative and hurtful commentary trying to tear down women, people of color, and individuals in the LGBTQ2+ community all the time. We are constantly *ding* notified of how terrible trolls can be.

In order to combat this seemingly never ending newsfeed of hate and disrespect I think an intersectional approach would bring forth a platform for inclusive discourse. Learning and applying aspects of Critical Race Theory, examining how we can reconstruct how society views and interacts with race, racism, and power.


Noble, Safiya Umoja, and Brendesha M. Tynes. The Intersectional Internet: Race, Sex, Class and Culture Online. Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 2016.

Wikipedia Policies: Identity-Safe Spaces

Wikipedia policies encourage writers to take care when writing about women, choosing proper descriptors when describing people from specific regions, and to use gender neutral words. This is important for creating identity-safe spaces.

When writing about women it’s vital to reference their works and accomplishments as an individual in order to avoid gender bias. If she was the first woman to complete a certain accomplishment it is important to acknowledge her other achievements prior. This assists in avoiding unconscious gender bias whilst reading biographies of women.

Relationship are also important to reference correctly when writing about women. Wikipedia article about women address their relationships more often than articles about men. When it is necessary to discuss avoid terms such as, “man and wife” and “Mrs. John Doe.” These word choices come off sexist and mark the women as objects their husbands own. If their relationship is not correlated to their works and achievements discussed then it is best to leave it out.

Gender neutral language should be used when writing and editing Wikipedia articles to steer clear of misgendering and the use of “unnecessary reinforcement of traditional stereotypes” (Wikipedia: Gender Neutral Language, 2019). In order to compose gender neutral content the use of the singular pronoun, they is appropriate. Always including both genders is another solution but does not take into account people who do not identify as either male or female. Because “man” is seen as the norm or given I personally like to use “she” to combat the patriarchal contributions regarding language. When I reference a theoretical being I choose “she” but “they” I think is more proper.

When choosing descriptive words for people it is necessary to refrain from inappropriate or racial terms. Wikipedia urges the descriptor the group of people being referenced prefer. Instead of choosing “Asian,” a very broad and expansive region, it is best to narrow down and choose “Japanese” when referring people from Japan. Another point to mention is the significance of not choosing to use derogatory terminologies. Instead of referring to African American as “colored,” which is very hurtful to the African American community, it is best to instead use “African Americans” or “Black people.”

Insuring usage of neutral and PC terminologies is critical to write informational and unbiased pieces. From respecting women’s achievements, people’s gender identities, to people’s ethnicities. Wikipedia has guidelines to help us navigate our ways to contributing sound and civil work.

Bibliography: “Manual of Style.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 29 Oct. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Manual_of_Style#Gender-neutral_language.

“Manual of Style.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 29 Oct. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Manual_of_Style#Identity.

“Writing about Women.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 6 Sept. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Writing_about_women.

“Gender-Neutral Language.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 27 July 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Gender-neutral_language.

He works + She works in a Patriarchal Society

Occupational sexism is any discriminatory happenings that take place within the work place. Often referred to as double standards. Males are held to “this” standard. But if you are female, you are held to this (often stricter) standard. These “typical office double standards,” Kirk and Okazawa-Rey (373) shed light on how very unfair women and men are treating within workplace walls.

A man displaying his family photo on his desk characterizing him as a loyal, stand-up, family man. When a woman displays a family photo it is seen as her prioritizing her family above her career. (373) I agree that women face these challenges, I myself have personally. I do think He Works, She Works,But What Different Impressions They Make shares valuable insight to how different assumptions and impressions are made regarding one’s sex. What jobs we take, what promotions we may achieve, what our pay is, to how our actions and emotions are interpreted are interdependent on our sex within this patriarchal society.

The Wikipedia Article, Occupational Sexism talk more on the discriminations working women face. A knowledge gap within this article is referencing the patriarchal society we live and participate in. I also think referencing He Works, She Works, But What Different Impressions They Make could help elevate the Wikipedia article by providing readers information of the double standards working women face.

Making this change within the Wikipedia article would combat not only occupational sexism, gender discrimination, and patriarchy. The two former stem from the latter. To tackle it from the root cause instead of simply trimming back the unsightly overgrowth would produce an equitable bouquet for all the enjoy. To bring down the patriarchy would assist greatly to bring down other systems of oppression.

Kirk, Gywn, and Margo Okazowa-Rey. “He Works, She Works, But What Different Impressions They Make.” Readings for Diversity and Social Justice, by Maurianne Adams, Routledge, 2018, pp. 373–374.

“Occupational Sexism.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Oct. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupational_sexism.

Troubles with White Feminism + Lateral Violence

While reading “The Trouble With White Feminism” I learned how social systems of power shape and mold online spaces such as Twitter or discussion forums. For example, a White male scholar (*sniff sniff*, you smell the privilege too right?) was harassing women of color because they “were in the way.” Mikki Kendall, WOC digital activist called not only him out but the white feminist bloggers that stayed quiet as *crickets* when the whole thing went down. Mikki started #SolidarityIsForWhiteWomen to bring forth the issues with White feminism and how the lateral violence spreads. Lateral violence is when those of an oppressed group become the oppressors.  “The historical antecedents of White feminism are rooted in colonialism.” (p. 43) The problem with White feminism is how it sits complacent while their fellow sisters are struggling due to the social systems of power such as racism, classism, and homophobia.

Examples of how White women shape and mold “the framework of feminism in a digital era” (Noble 56) are Sheryl Sanberg’s Lean In movement, Eve Ensler’s One Billion Rising , and The Future of Online Feminism report.

Sanberg’s Lean In movement and book propose a very narrow Liberal feminist approach. An individual approach to mold yourself into the cookie cutter shape society has deemed superior. Although new to the feminist movement, her words really address white, educated, corporate level, married, straight, able women. Nothing is mentioned about Women of Color, or of LGBTQIA+ sisters, or any other social location that isn’t deemed the “norm.”

Eve Ensler’s, a playwright began the One Billion Rising campaign raising money and awareness for sexual violence. She had devoted February 10th as V-Day without addressing V-Day is a day to honor Indigenous and Native Women. She promoted the “incarceration of perpetrators” which is a problem with White feminism as well. Not acknowledging that state violence affects People of Color differently.

The Future of Online Feminism was written by two white feminist bloggers who tried to encompass Women of Color’s point’s of views but really was a report of their own shared experiences. They spoke of ways to have digital feminist blogging a money maker but didn’t hit on how differing social locations, unlike their own, could play certain roles in succeeding.

These three examples shine a light on the problems with White feminism because how it is sits idly by not acknowledging, or being complacent, with social systems of power that benefit themselves and harm others. This lateral violence reveals that, “White feminism is indistinguishable from White supremacy” (Noble 45).

“The Trouble With White Feminism: Whiteness, Digital Feminism, and The Intersectional Internet.” The Intersectional Internet: Race, Sex, Class and Culture Online, by Safiya Umoja. Noble and Brendesha M.. Tynes, 6th ed., Peter Lang., 2016, pp. 41–60.

Summary: Digital Intersectionality and #BlackLivesMatter Movement

To summarize the article Digital Intersectionality and The #BlackLivesMatter Movement by Brendesha Tynes, Joshua Schuschke, and Safiya Umoja Noble it is imperative to understand what the movement is and what the movement is fighting for.

The #BlackLivesMatter Movement is a discussion that was sparked by the acquittal of George Zimmerman, Trayvon Martin’s murderer. A hashtag turned movement by Alicia Garza, Opal Tometi, and Patrrisse Cullors about in which ways Black lives are denied freedom, safety, equity and equality because of systemic racism. It’s a movement demanding that the slaughtering and imprisonment of Black lives end. Social media has made it possible for so much information the reach numerous people in little amount of time, sometimes instantly.

“Social media has amplified the visibility” (Noble 22) of the state violence that is happening to Black lives so it is brought to light more often and quickly. Social media having that upside though does not mean it does not have its downs. It still has roots of heteropatriarchy. Black women and Black LGBTQIA+ people are at the frontlines of organizing #BlackLivesMatter but sadly Black women and Black queer women are too often not included. This calls for digital intersectionality and with the beginning of #SayHerName the movement has grown and is more inclusive to Black women and of the LGBTQIA+ community. It’s an ever evolving movement that will #SayHerName to bring awareness of the Black women that are murdered by state violence therefore battling the systemic divisions of social locations that goes unchecked at times.

The Intersectional Internet: Race, Sex, Class, and Culture Online (Digital Formations Book 105) (p. 21-37). Peter Lang. Kindle Edition.

“About.” Black Lives Matter, blacklivesmatter.com/about/.