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Cross-Border Education

Cross-border education references the “movement of people, programs, providers, policies, knowledge, ideas, projects and services across national borders” (Knight, J).  It has grown at a rapid pace in recent years.  The term itself can be confusing to understand at times because it is also known as transnational, offshore, and borderless education.  With the predictions of increasing numbers of international students, huge challenges lie ahead.  There has been growing interest for countries to begin to offer foreign curriculum within their own borders.  A large portion of creating cross-border education lies in the mobility of programs and educational courses.  The goal of cross-border education is to create joint degree programs within different countries and new opportunities to access higher education.

International Standards in Higher Education

Over one million international student study in higher educational institutions across the United States.  America’s high-quality programs are accredited with these high numbers.  Many benefits can from a cross-cultural perspective can be seen from international education.  Standards upheld by the ISPS require international student advisors to gain the proper training in order to make sure this experience can happen.  International student advisors are also required to remain current on governmental regulations and policies that exist.  NAFSA suggests that these advisors need to “ effectively communicate these regulations to students and key campus community members; establish and maintain working relationships with individuals on and off-campus to address and advocate for students’ needs; be competent in crisis intervention; have strong cross-cultural competencies to allow them to interact effectively with students from diverse cultures; understand how to develop effective and creative social and cultural programming; and prioritize and manage time and resources” (Council for…).  Having international standards is essential and critical for student success and career outcomes.

International Education Knowledge Community

One of the biggest influencers in international education is hearing and learning about first hand experiences from students as well as professionals.  The International Education Knowledge Community offers the opportunity to do just that.  It is great way to promote global internationalization within higher education.  NASPA is a way to stay up-to-date on social action and civic engagement opportunities that are currently present.  In order to learn, there needs to be a way to share knowledge and practices across the globe.  The International Education Knowledge Community is in place to distribute this information and also continue to research new options and better ways of doing so.  The three goals of the International Education Knowledge Community are:

  1. To stimulate increased awareness of the global perspective in higher education.
  2. To provide a structure and opportunity for members to communicate regarding global issues related to student affairs.
  3. To encourage professional connections with colleagues in other countries.


Council for the Advancement Standards in Higher Education (2008). CAS standards on International Student Programs.

“International Education About.” NASPA,

Knight, J. (2012). Concepts, rationales, and interpretive frameworks In D. Deardorff, H. de Wit, J.D. Heyl, & T. Adams (Eds), SAGE handbook of international higher education (pp. 27-42). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.

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Reverse Culture Shock

This week and previous weeks we have focused a lot on study abroad and some of the major topics that surround studying abroad.  One of those topics that often gets over looked is reverse culture shock.  It’s important not to get a regular culture shock confused with reverse culture shock.  A regular cultural shock is described as the transition one undergoes when they arrive to a foreign country.  Reverse culture shock has different characteristics than a regular culture shock.  For example, the shock one experiences don’t come from unfamiliar surroundings.  Using Alison Blazer’s definition, it is rather described as “the shock one undergoes when they are surrounded by everything they knew before that had their experience abroad.”  Reverse culture shock is a normal symptom that students who study abroad have once they return back to the United States.  Image result for reverse culture shockTheir experience in a foreign environment has an influence on how they view the world and often causes emotional and psychological distress trying to readjust to lives in their home country.  Many factors can influence the degree and magnitude of culture shock that one undergoes.  For example, the amount of time spent in another country or the extent of differences in cultures from the student’s home country and the country they are studying abroad in can all play a role.  Reverse culture shock is very real and definitely takes a great supporting cast to help the student readjust to their daily routines.


Global English Instruction

Studies have been done to understand the size, shape, and trends of English medium instruction across the globe.  Research has suggested that English medium instruction is expanding on the global scale and governments are backing the movement.  However, public opinions haven’t been as quick to jump in on the movement.  They still view teaching subjects through English instruction as controversial but haven’t bluntly shut down idea.  The argument or fear from the public is seeing English medium instruction becoming too large and having too much influence on their countries identity.  The fear of losing their countries first language is the major concern for the general population of countries who don’t use English as their primary language.  Even if countries wish to move forward with English medium instructions they still face several obstacles in implementing it into their education system.  One of those obstacles is the shortage of qualified teachers and little efforts being done for professional development of those teachers.  Much more research will need to be done to address the concept of a global adoption of English medium instruction.  Decisions will lie in policy maker’s hands and until we better understand the consequences and potential outcomes of English medium instruction, it will be very tough one for them to make.

Image result for global english instruction


Third Culture Kids Transition to Higher Education

Third culture kids are described as people who are raised in a culture other than their parents culture.  Third culture kids are also known as “Global Nomads.”  Families have become more mobile due to the growing global economy.  In correlation, the number of TCK students has rose.  TCK students are often exposed to much greater cultural influences than normal students.  TCK students generally experience a lack of connection to the different cultures they are put in because of their temporary lifestyles.  Research has suggested that transitioning into a higher education institution has relied on their preparedness prior to their transition, initial experience during the transition, adjustment during the transition, and stabilization (Purnell, L).  Most of the research done on TCK kids can be attributed to Pollack’s Transition Model of 1990 and J.T. Gullahorn and J.E. Gullahorn’s W Curve Model of 1963.   The research suggested that success for TCK students was attributed to students who received preparation from their school and family before they made the move.  Socially isolated TCK students experience transitional hardships.


Blazer (2013, February 20). Reverse Cultures Shock

Dearden, J. (2015) English and a medium for instruction – a growing global phenomenon British Council Report.

Purnell, L. & Hoban, E. (2014). The lived experiences of Third Culture Kids transitioning into university life in Australia. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 41, 80-90

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Social Justice

Social Justice has a unique relationship with globalization.  John Rawls developed a “Theory of Justice” in 1971 to help understand the connection between the two.  Rawls mentions the importance of equal rights and liberty to all to allow citizens to decide their positions within society.  Although Rawls and many other theories have hypothesized social justice and its connection to globalization, one thing became certain; it is hard to measure and define.  Some believe that globalization has a negative influence on social justice.  A common argument is that poor people are left behind and become disadvantaged in the natural course of globalization.  Other’s like Paul Krugman argues that globalization is not the reason for social injustice and the weight should be focused on tax cuts.  However, case study shows countries who experience rapid globalization enjoy social justice.

Theories in Higher Education

Theories can be a very essential part in understanding and developing higher education on a universal scale.  However, it is important to understand the context in which the theories were created and used.  This week we focused on one such theory describing how western thought has become superior of eastern thought and overrunning educational systems in eastern nations.  Along that theory in particular it was important to understand where the theory was deprived from.  I was able to learn that most of the biggest influencing theories towards higher education across the globe where all derived from the west and were directing at that population.  Therefore, Eastern nations need cultural modification because those theories may not hold up in their area of the world.  Theories are a key component of developing higher education on a universal scale but must be cautiously examined when understanding how to implement them in different areas of the world.

Internationalization in Asia, North Africa, and the Middle East

This week was also interesting to learn about the historically ignored and misrepresented regions of the world in a higher education context.  Again, these countries have been overlooked by the pressure to globalize and develop neoliberalism.  These countries have all had to resist the urge of develop western pedagogy and universal values.  Image result for education in north africaThe problem in these countries with universalism is accredited to cultural relativism.  There is a need to shift the Western model in these countries to one that does a better job representing the indigenous and local culture that will allow students to find a deeper connection in their education and learning.

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Internationalization has occurred in many areas of higher education.  One of those areas is the progression of curriculum of universities.  Curriculum started with just simply foreign language classes but has shifted towards more content dealing with intercultural and global matters.  I learned this week that the term itself originated in the 1980’s as a tool to promote international studies and the way in which universities approach international education.  It can also be interpreted differently throughout the different areas of the globe.  Image result for internationalization of higher educationUltimately it is a way to promote academic mobility for students and bring higher education opportunities to different areas of the globe.  One of the most unique readings I learned about from this week’s readings was how the term has changed from the 1960’s where it was primarily used as a way to describe international scholarships.  Now it has shifted more towards cross-border education.  It is also evident that it is a combined effort among different nations to cooperate in a manner that can promote and increase the process of internationalization, which is to increase the diversity of cultures that exist in the classrooms throughout different countries.



Higher education is on the rise on a global scale.  The growth of the higher education across the scale can be attributed to the success of graduates versus those without a degree.  There is a demand for skilled labors everywhere.  Globalization in higher education is critical in order to keep up with the faced paced global economy.  Competition for productivity in the market drives the need for higher education across the globe.  Technology is a major force behind globalization.  Increasing transportation and communication has helped the efforts of globalization.  One term I found particularly helpful in understanding Globalization was “the practice of growing social interaction and connectivity among people around the world, creating economic, social, cultural, political, environmental, scientific and technological interdependence” (Levin, 2001; Marginson, 2007).

Image result for globalization of higher educationOne thing is for sure, globalization has led more research and development at higher educational institutions.

Study Abroad

Alongside the growing number of higher education is the number of studying outside their countries.  Studying abroad has become a major driving force behind universities and colleges in their fierce competition to become more globalized and increasing its international student population make-up.  Studying abroad promotes the universities goal of increasing their international commitment of becoming more globalized.  It offers students the unique opportunity to experience different styles of education across the globe and interact with different cultures. Image result for studying abroad of higher education Studying abroad promotes internationalization by promoting academic mobility across different countries.  Studying abroad opens the door for a vast range of career opportunities for undergraduate students.


Chapter 2, J. (2012). Concepts, rationales, and interpretive frameworks in internationalization of higher education. In D. Deardorff,  H. de Wit, J.D. Heyl, & T. Adams (Eds), SAGE handbook of international higher education.(pp. 27-42). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.

Yelland, R. (2011). Globalization of higher education (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. The OECD Observer, 287. – This report explores globalization of higher education from an economic/market perspective

Pages 3-22, Mitchell, D. E. & Nielsen, S. Y. (2012) Internationalization and globalization in higher education. In H. Cuadra-Montiel (Ed.), Globalization – Education and management agendas (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (pp. 3-22). – This book chapter explores the impact of globalization to higher education in the U.S., borrowing from two studies conducted by the authors.