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If I was the head of a funding agency, and can decide what projects can receive an award funding I would be most excited about funding that research about intestinal cancer. We all have learned about how important of gut microbiome can affect human health; the change of ratio of some major microbiota can influence the immune system of one’s  health.  Therefore, from the research project, I would hope to learn, understand more about functions and characteristics of some microbiota in our systems.  I want to be able to see what trigger the proliferation in epithelial tissue and hope to find a good treatment to prevent this disease to move to the different stage. Cancer is known as the most common cause of death, the early treatment solution we can find is the better outcome for future healthcare.

June 8th, 2019 at 5:59 am | Comments & Trackbacks (0) | Permalink
  • List of human non-infectious diseases
  • Diabetes (type1 and type 2)
  • Stroke
  • Heart attack
  • Obesity
  • Encephalitis
  • Alzheimer disease
  • Cancer (lung, liver, colon, prostate)
  • Asthma
  • Ulcer
  • Allergy


  • After 10 weeks of studying about microorganisms, I understand many non-infectious diseases can be caused by microbiota in human body. The course does open my awareness about the vast majority of microbiota can have impacts on human health in multiple perspectives. Also I need to keep in mind that any disruption to the gut microbiome diversity can increase the potential harm in one‘s health.


June 8th, 2019 at 5:16 am | Comments & Trackbacks (0) | Permalink

Any change or disruption in the composition of gut microbiol such as decrease of beneficial bacteria, decrease intestinal permeability, increase the use of probiotic can directly link to host health. Gut microbes can have many important roles in control the development, metabolism, nutrition, immunity and even the central nervous system of human health. As we’ve already known Bacteriodes can digest carbohydrates, generate short chain fatty acids which supply energy for body. Also the presence of microorganism in the intestinal microbiota can influence the immune system which is highly related to the nervous system.

Many studies showed that modification in microbial diversity can create a negative impact in one health outcomes, and cause some alteration in the central nervous system like depression, stress, anxiety ect.  Furthermore, the requirement of neurological disease ’treatments may alter the gut composition, affect the way how body responds to treatment, or even increase the risk of side effects of the host.

Vagus nerve is activated by gut microbes, which is known as the lead to effect on brain and behavior. Therefore any change in the gut-brain axis can be influenced by diet, lifestyle… The gut-brain axis also integrates the enteric and endocrine system. Thus any significant changes that occur in the microbiota can also modify the concentration of some important compounds such as growth factors and signaling proteins, the consequence of these modifications can cause some physiological dysfunction.

However, the bacteria are known as beneficial one such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium can produce gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA) which is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system.

In additional, the stress factors can be directly related to the imbalance of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Depression and anxiety may also increase the potential of intestinal inflammation.

June 2nd, 2019 at 9:17 pm | Comments & Trackbacks (0) | Permalink

Can experiments detect differences that matter?

The significant of this question is to identify function of specific species or gene, then to determine the characteristics of microorganism. Understanding the different functions among microorganisms are important because it will help the researchers to find, and apply the correct treatment to each of the organisms based on these differences.

Does the study show causation or correlation?

The step will distinguish which is the main focus to treat the disease effectively.  After separating the causation and correlation, we can define the right treatment. There will be no more confusion among all the factors that can cause disease in one health.  Causation will require the treatment in order to archive the result, while correlation will require some changes in one habit to improve, and to prevent the problem can be happened.

What is the mechanism?

Any health diseases will have their particular pathway. Therefore, knowing the mechanism of these pathways will help to approach these problems, and then design an appropriate experiment to either suppress the harmful component or activate the beneficial one.

How much do experiments reflect reality?

We all know microbiome have many effects on human health but not all the effect are significantly harmful. In this case clinical studies are required to determine the effect, and most of the time we use mice instead of human for some dangerous researches. In order to consider a research or study is validated, we need to acknowledge some surrounding factors that may influence an outcome of a treatment.

Could anything else explain the results?

Pay attention to many co-factors or influences that can impact how we finalize the result of diseases. Study the characteristic of the microorganism can help us predict the possibilities of result, also be aware of what other factors can manipulate the actual outcome. This is a double check step to make sure that the report has a high value.

I think the causation and correlation is the most helpful key when discussing controversy because this is the step to define the important of how a disease affect human. Therefore, knowing the main cause of the disease will help to find the treatment faster. I see the discussion of this step can be controversy because of the meaning of causation and correlation is somehow can create a lot of different opinions, which will required more studies to eliminate any potential confusions.

June 2nd, 2019 at 9:14 pm | Comments & Trackbacks (0) | Permalink

After reading another classmate essay, I feel like I need to have stronger evidence to support my paper. I feel my essay may have enough evidence but not a very strong evidence to support the my opinion. I know I need a lot of improvement in my writing and the best thing that I can do is to read more. I will certainly to read comments and feedbacks from peer review, then to consider their advise. I also have someone proofread the essay for me as I’ve been doing. I think another problem I have in my writing is that I cannot seem to focus  enough. I know sometime it’s hard to accept other person criticisms, but that is how I can learn to be better writer. There are a lot of bad habits in my writing. I understand this is my weakness, and I’m working on it consistently.

May 25th, 2019 at 6:20 am | Comments & Trackbacks (0) | Permalink

Peer review is the process to filter and ensure the research that is about to publish has high quality. The peer review starts when scientist completed a research study, then scientist will submit paper to a suitable journal where they are specializes in a relevant research field. This step referred to pre-submission step.  Then the editor of the journal will review the paper, make sure the subject matter will match with its journal. If the journal editor sees the paper meet the requirement and is written by credible source, this paper then will be sent for a formal peer review. By doing this, the editor wants to ensure the peer reviews are conducted fairly and effective. After received the paper, the reviewer must read it carefully, scrutinizes it to evaluate the reliability of the science, the quality of the experimental design. Reviewers also double check the missing and inaccurate references. They will give some recommendation whether the paper should be improved, rejected, or accepted before publication.

Pro: encourages the authors to strive to present high quality research of that field; supports, maintains integrity, and authenticity in the advancement of science.

Cons: the process may take long time due to the multiple steps of review process. Single- blind peer review is common however if that reviewer who received manuscripts on subjects, noticed the similarity of this paper to his/her own research, he/she may be tempted to delay completing the review process to publish.

May 24th, 2019 at 6:49 am | Comments & Trackbacks (0) | Permalink

Changes in human behaviors that contribute to decreased exposure to microbes.

Practice good hand hygiene: Salmonella, E.Coli, norovirus are source of germ from human and animal’s feces, they can cause upset stomach and diarrhea. These organisms can easily spread by contact between people to people. Therefore, by practicing good hand hygiene such as washing hands with soap and water before meals and after using bathroom, clean your hands before cooking, can reduce the spread of infection.

Cover your cough and stay home when you’re sick: this practice will more likely to stop spreading germ to the community, this practice is to help others rather than yourself.

Taking an antibiotic: this will eliminate some microbes that cause infections, antibiotic can also kill microbes that have positive influence in a host as well.

Food preparation: have food prepare and store properly will limit the invasion of some unfamiliar microbiota enter to your body system.

Exercise regularly, diet: this routine will promote healthy lifestyle which can help to boost the immune system to prevent the intruding of some infections cause by microbial disease.


May 19th, 2019 at 2:19 pm | Comments & Trackbacks (0) | Permalink

Free write/Brainstorm

  • I think there is many interesting that that I learned about is the oral infection can cause CVD, the infant microiota can be impact by the way that how they were born, the beneficial of prebiotic and probiotic can increase healthy gut in human. Also the mom who expose to microbes during their pregnancy can improve the microbieme in the infant. Breast milk can give the infant a good start in term provide a healthy gut.
  • I think having healthy gut is important because it will help an individual to avoid some complicated health issue such as cancer, chonic disease, immunology. Understanding tht we can prevent and maintance gut healthy by changing diet , apply more healthy food that will increase the diversity of microbiota in our body, maybe some good hand hygiene or good practice in preparing and storage food we can help to eliminate some pathogen enter into our body.Another note is knowing oral infection can increase the risk of CVD, we need to pay more attention to practice dental care.
  • I think in my final paper I would like to write about prebiotic, probiotic therapy. Also I think it’s a good idea to understand the topic about infant and microbiol changes during pregnancy. I like to now what the mother can do to provide the children a healthy life and healthy gut.
May 12th, 2019 at 11:50 am | Comments & Trackbacks (0) | Permalink

List and describe potential factors that the mother or the infant could be exposed to that could influence the colonization of the microbial community in the newborn infant.

Environment factors: diet can influence the gut microbiota during pregnancy. Gut microbiotic play an important role in mom weight gain include enhanced absorption of glucose and fatty acid , induce catabolic pathway, stimulate immune system. Weight gain in pregnancy is necessary for the growing fetus.  Microbial exposure  during pregnancy can prevent allergic disease in infants.

Antibiotic: use of antibiotic during pregnancy will reduced the diversity of bacteria, and promoted weight gain.

Probiotic: probiotic is introduced to pregnant women 14 day before C-section implying an early maternal effect on infant’s microbiota.

Nursing: breast feeding affects oral microbiome in infant, human milk is the predominant source for establishing a healthy microbiome in the newborn.

May 12th, 2019 at 6:05 am | Comments & Trackbacks (0) | Permalink

In my philosophy, I believe that it’s not necessary to seek for help right away every time when the problem approaches.  The way I think may relate to where I was born where resources are limited.  I don’t recall that I had rushed to emergency every single time when I was sick, only when nothing I’ve done will improve or get worst.  At first, I would try all the natural remedies before thinking about taking medication from the counter.  In term of antibiotics, I would try avoid them if possible, this has nothing to do with trust or religion, I just wanted to allow my body to resolve by itself. I believe a healthy body can be able to fight with some mild diseases or infections on its own. In the worst scenario, which I do need to obtain medical attention,  I hope the treatment can provided its full effect and benefit my health.  I don’t like building up a habit to think it’s OK to or seek for help, I’d like to take an attempt to solve it based on my own knowledge.  I like to reserve a resource for the right time,  and the right person. A lot of time what I’m trying to do is to practice healthy lifestyle because for me: my health is my own asset.

May 5th, 2019 at 5:43 pm | Comments & Trackbacks (1) | Permalink