Dec 03 2017

Writing Exercise #15

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After spending a lot of time reading a lot of scientific research relating to microbes and human health, I was very intrigue with the whole idea of microbial transplants and implantations. I find that the idea of dysbiosis is inevitable in our body and that the best way to combat it is to make sure we can reintroduce the missing microbes to ensure proper resetting of homeostasis. Being able to fund this project is something that will benefit the growing field and the end results of better human health. Research on the basis of finding the right microbes to reintroduce is hard. We might find it easy to replace a specific microbe, but if that specific one is hard to culture, alternative microbes should be looked into that has the same effects when inserted. Programs like implantation or transplant of microbial community do not have proper fund to allow them time to understand what microbes does what and how they effect us, but I feel that funding this research will be very beneficial in understanding microbial interaction better. The idea of reintroducing missing microbes to reverse the effects of dysbiosis is a good thing and sounds very logical to deal with this problem. Many of the research are inconclusive at the moment and that more intense and bigger research project are needed to be done so that this can be proven to be valuable to introduce the microbes into our system in a safe way without negative effects. Not only that, but funding this type of research could lead to better understanding of the mechanism of how certain factors will change microbial actions and that new probiotics can be used to combat that problem. This field of work done on microbial actions of human health is growing and allows a lot of room for many research projects that all can be very beneficial. There is one common goal for this field and that even though I rather fund this type of project, all possible type of projects will helps us understand microbial relation to human health in a better sense and improve patient outcome or human health.

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Dec 03 2017

Writing Exercise #14

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Weight, cancer, allergies, brain diseases, IBDs, and other systematic problems caused by the microbial community of our body.

 

Over the course of the term, I learned a lot more specific details of how microbes are connected to us and the changes that can occur to causes harm or benefit us. I stated back in my first writing assignment that there is a relationship between us and the microbes and that very little is known on the subject at hand. After taking this class, I learned that we do have knowledge on this field and that even though it is relatively knew, it is expanding rapidly. A general consensus on the idea of imbalance of microbes seems to explain a lot of problems for human health. I mean it makes sense that when something is not normal that we should have bad outcomes. Dysbiosis is a new theory that seems to explain a lot of things, but not definitive yet and that is why with more time and experiments, we can prove this to be true. To think that when dysbiosis occurs, we could just introduce the missing microbes back into our body or take antibiotics to rid the body of pathogenic microbes that have multiplied and cause dysbiosis. Probiotics have been known as a factor to greatly diversify the microbial community of body and prevent susceptibility to allergies and other foreign problems. These microbes are so crucial in our everyday function and when things are out of place, we see certain responses occurs that are harmful or even certain processes stop. It is not easy to determine which factors cause what problem, but we do focus on researching into this and that even though many research paper are not adequate source of reference, we are expanding the field and in hopes trying to find a way to ultimately connect microbes to humans.

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Nov 25 2017

Writing Exercise #13

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The five key questions used to interpret scientific literature is very important and can be used to better our understanding of what the author is trying to convey with his or her audience. The first question addressing experiments leads us to understand that maybe certain factors or changes may not lead to normal results. We do not like it when things are not normal and so when results differ from experiments, it gives us a purpose to figure why it is different. The second question brings up correlation or causation. This is another important aspect, because if certain factors are causation, we end up with drastic problems that are certain to happen. Bring up the idea, that we can also understand that a certain problem can be stopped if the cause is known. Correlation helps us understand that certain factors are not always certain, but leads us to believe that certain results may occur. Third question propose is the idea of the mechanism and what I believe to be most important. Being able to understand how thing work and what it may lead to is the fundamental of science. Without being able to process how things work specifically, how will we ever realizes certain solutions to problems we have. If a certain bacteria does this because of some specific factor, we can make a causation to say that removing that factor stops what it does. Knowledge is power and knowing how things work is what makes us study what we study in science. The fourth question of reflecting reality is also important. We need to see if certain hypothesis or data may pertain to us as human being or that certain solutions can be incorporated in the real world. Most experiments are done on microbes or animals, but are rarely done on humans. This brings up the idea that may the results may not be the same for humans or what possible effect can a theory have on reality if conducted in real life. The last question about other explanations on the result gives the literature another view. What is one solution is not the case and that maybe there are many possibilities for a problem? We see that in the scientific world, there are countless of scenarios and outcomes for a certain problem or factor. Learning and understand that a certain mechanism may have another explanation is an important factor because we shouldn’t be assuming just any one solution or idea.

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Nov 25 2017

Writing Exercise #12

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Microbial interactions and state of well being are all connected in a way that is still not easily understood, but raises the question to how we can gap that connection. Not only does dysbiosis lead to gut problems, but also may propagate to brain problems. Who would have thought that macrophages or lymphocytes are capable to releasing cytokines that could lead to brain problems? Also that microbes are evolving with us and that some are able to release neurotransmitters that could change the actions of the brain. I think of this like a secondary response to when the stomach “second brain” enters dysbiosis and from there it will try to correct itself, but cause more problems such as IBD or neural problems. The same could be said about the other way. If we have a brain disorder, we have problems relaying messages or neurotransmitters to our body and that could lead to a shift in the microbial community. Some process might be loss with a neural problem and so the microbes involve might be loss also. It is a use it or lose it problem and when we don’t need something such as a certain microbial group, that ultimately changes the homeostasis of the community and reach dysbiosis. This leads us to many more problems that are caused by microbial dysbiosis due to secondary effects, but this also helps us discover what we can do to help fix this problem. Autism is a serious neurological problem, but being able to introduce antibiotics helps return the gut to symbiosis and show better gut and brain functions. There is a lot to be understood about microbial relationship and especially relating to secondary problems that traces back to the brain.

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Nov 19 2017

Writing Exercise #11

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Being able to take part in the peer-review process for my classmate is not only helpful to my peer, but to me as well. The whole process is very time consuming and allows me to go deeper into what is expected out of this final paper. Not everyone will agree upon a certain topic because of how many different opinions could be presented. Reading my peer’s work, I was moved by how well they articulated their own opinionated paper. It was hard at times to figure certain aspects of the paper, because of how intensive the article is and the sheer volume the article contains. It was difficult to give good comments or constructive criticism that allows for thoughtful change. Sometimes a suggestion could lose sight of the main focus and make the paper less interesting. At times, it might be easy to give a directional sense or say that certain area are vague, but it is never easy to give helpful feedback that is not plain and simple. I tried my best to think of alterations my peers can do to fix their paper and that made me think of how I could also fix my paper. By thinking of these deeper expectation on what is needed, I can change my paper accordingly. Sentences structure and ways of addressing a key point can be taken from my peer to be incorporated in my paper to extrapolate more on my topic. I can also go on to see how references were used to further the understanding and use better sources if need be. Peer editing is a rough process, but it allows insight on what is needed or missing to create a better conception.

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Nov 15 2017

Writing Exercise #10

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When using a peer review article in a scientific paper, it is quite important to realize how it has become peer reviewed in the first place. The process is actually vigourous and take a lot of time and effort to be able to get a journal to publish the article. As an editor, you will have to come up with an article that captures everything you want to convey. From there the editor would choose a journal to send the article to, usually one that fits the topic of the paper or has connection to with a large audience. Once being screened by the reviewers of the journal, someone who is specifically trained on the topic and see what fits best for the journal, the article will either be rejected or accepted. For the most part, being accepted without revision is very rare and the article will usually be asked to be changed to fit the need of the journal. At this point, the author of the article will choose to give up on the journal or accept to change the his or her work to fit the need of the article and resubmit for further evaluation. Even then, there will be a repeated cycle of changes needed to be done on the article until the author gives up or has accepted that the article is good enough to themselves without too much change from their original idea to be submitted. This overall process is very strict and has a distinct route in which an article must pass before being acclaimed as a peer review article. Without this process, anyone can write something they think may fit the journal’s idea and claim that it is backed up with information and experiments. With other trained scientist supporting the ideas of the article, the editor can be reassured that their work is done right and that others may be at ease that the information is not made up or convey the wrong meaning.The perk of this all is that the article will be able to be endorse as an actual article that fits all vetting of the journal and may be used by others in their paper. Not only that, there is a large and wide range of audience for the article. It is a tedious job to go through all of this to get a paper published, but in the end, the article will be available for others to cite and be seen by many others to read and acknowledge.

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Nov 12 2017

Writing Exercise #9

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Hello everyone!

We often introduce new bacteria into our system when we change our daily actions. By doing so, we have change what type of microbiota we are introduce to. This also means that the opposite can happen and by changing certain behaviors, we can decrease the exposure rate. A few ways I thought of decreasing exposure involves being cleaning and isolating oneself. Being clean and washing your hands limits the amount of exposure to new microbes we might have contacted during the day. Something as simple as showering could clean off many microbial community and decrease exposure of microbe into the body. By also limiting the amount spent in crowded areas, we also inhibit the contraction of microbes. Another behavior we can change is by staying away from pollutants and busy city populations. With decreasing interaction between oneself and others, the chance of exposure is cut drastically. A final behavior I think might be beneficial in stopping microbial exposure is our diet. We shouldn’t be eating anything raw or dirty. From there, the diet should be healthy and included vitamin C to help boost the immune system in preventing microbial exposure. There are many small changes that we all can do in our daily lives to help lower the exposure to microbes.

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Nov 05 2017

Writing Exercise #8

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In this class, I was able to learn a lot more about the microbial world and how they are connected to us more than we think. I have taken microbiology last year and the concepts are pretty similar in how this class refers to the small connection that is between our symbiosis. It is not easy to figure out what exactly changes the relationship of the microbiota in our gut or other site of colony, but any disruption from equilibrium leads to negative effects. I was fascinated at how easily external factors can change these colonies of microbes like eating a high fat diet. Yet, there are simple ways to negate the effects and introduce antibiotics or probiotics in certain situations.

 

Many scenarios where we deal with a bacterial disease cause by dysbiosis, we are able to introduce antibiotics or probiotics in these certain situations. Our body is a working vessel harboring multiple subunits that works together in unison to create multiple functions. When faced with missing microbes from certain gut community, we are susceptible to facing terminally ill diseases. Our body will try to restore the microbiota to normal, but doing so may lead to further problems. One chain of events leads to more destruction and that is why we need to make sure that we keep our microbial community at a homeostasis. With the help of antibiotics and probiotics we allow for buffering of that equilibrium to prevent dysbiosis.

 

I see that, I am able to extrapolate my ideas well and provide a lot of context to go with my final paper. I do struggle with forming smooth sentences to convey my information and at times may try too hard to make it sound good. Looking ahead at the final paper, I will be taking my time to start it slowly everyday to come up with a lot of idea and write out my thoughts concisely so that there is no confusion. I will go over my essay with others and ask for as much feedback as I can. Hopefully going into this final paper, I may be able to create a well written paper that conveys everything I need to say in a smooth and easy sense.

 

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Nov 05 2017

Writing Exercise #7

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Hello everyone!

Today we will be talking about how some potential external factors could influence the colonization of microbial communities in a newborn baby. From the moment we are conceived and implanted to the uterus, we are connected to our mother and share the same introduction of microbes. There is a mutual relationship between the infant and the mother and when one of the two is affected, then the other one will experience the same thing. If the mother does drugs or drink alcohol, there will be a link between the microbes of that external factor to the infant. By doing drugs as a mother, you introduce toxic chemicals and bacterias that will colonize in the infant which leads to possible birth defects. This truly is saddening and goes true for mothers who drink alcohol during birth. By method of delivery, the microbes introduce to the infant will be different from either being the vaginal community or the dermal community of the stomach. There is possible positive introduction such as breastfeeding. With breastfeeding, the mother is introducing nutrient and good bacteria the mother has cultured in her body to give to her infant. We should keep the alpha and beta diversity groups in check so that all the bacteria remains in a balanced state. By allow more diversity or hindering it, we have dysbiosis and that leads to many of the problems we see in us and infants. Many outside factors can change how the newborn infant is after the introduction of those factors because the mother, infant, and microbial community are all in symbiosis and connected.

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Oct 29 2017

Writing Exercise #6

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Hi everyone!

Today I would like to describe my physical being while dealing with a bacterial disease and how the introduction of antibiotics provided positive change. Last year during the winter, I was dealing with a bacterial infection known as strep throat. It is a nasty bacteria that made its way into my throat causing inflammation; making it harder for me to swallow my food. I went to the doctors because my body felt very weak and eating or resting was hindered greatly which caused me to feel even worse. After being diagnosed with the bacterial infection, I knew that I would be prescribed antibiotics and that was exactly what I got. I was directed to take my medication every 6 hours for about a week. The infection I was dealing with involved bacteria and so the best way to deal with it was with antibiotics. In my case I was prescribed penicillin. I would never take antibiotics if this was the flu because that is a virus infection and introducing more microbes, causing dysbiosis would make it even worse. It is a good idea to take antibiotics only when it is for sure a bacterial disease and be sure to take it as soon as the infection begins. These antibiotics should be taken through a specific regimen to ensure the killing of the bacteria is thorough and to prevent antibiotic resistance from overuse of the medication. By taking a fair amount of antibiotics to control the proliferation of the bacteria cell, we can disrupt their cell wall and cause them to be suppressed. This strep throat infection has confirmed my philosophy that bacteria diseases should be handled with antibiotics and that in due time the body will be at homeostasis once again when the number of microbes is back to normal.

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