Tips for Growing Caneberries from Master Gardener Sandy Nado

a person holds a double handfull of berries
There is nothing more delicious than a handful of homegrown berries. Photo: Annie Spratt on Unsplash
Raspberries, Blackberries, and their Hybrids

Raspberries, blackberries and their hybrids (boysenberries, tayberries, and loganberries) are members of the Rose family.  They are often called caneberries, as they produce berries on whip-like structures known as canes.

Caneberries have perennial roots but produce canes that live only two years. In their first year of growth the new canes are called primocanes; they produce leaves but not berries. In their second year of growth, the canes are call floricanes and will produce berries before they die in the fall. The first summer after planting there will be no berry harvest as all of the canes will be primocanes; the second year, a new set of primocanes will appear and the floricanes will produce berries.  With proper care, caneberries will produce crops for 15 to 20 years.

Tips for Growing Caneberries

Choose a site that is in full sun for best yield. The site should also have well-drained, fertile, loam soil. Blackberries are somewhat tolerant of heavy soils, but raspberries are sensitive to wet soils and if planted in heavy soil they may die from lack of oxygen in the soil or from root rot or other root diseases.

Avoid planting caneberries where potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, strawberries, or other caneberries have grown in the last 3 years, as these crops may have been infected with the same insect pests and diseases that can damage caneberries.

Begin preparing the soil in the year before you plant by eliminating all perennial weeds and keeping remaining weeds from going to seed. Add organic matter to the soil in the summer or fall to improve soil aeration and drainage. Check soil pH about 6 months before you plant, and amend soil as needed. Raspberries require a pH between 5.5 and 6.5, blackberries between 5.5 and 7.

Select a cultivar. Caneberries come in a variety of cultivars which differ in growth habit and disease resistance, as well as color and flavor. Buy certified disease-free plants from a nursery for best results. Whenever possible, choose plants that are resistant to at least some pests and viruses.  For more information on cultivars that grow well in the Northwest, see:

Plant caneberries in the spring as early as you can work the soil. You will need to supply trellises for all cultivars of blackberries and for most raspberries. For detailed information on planting styles (hill vs. hedgerow) and trellising styles, see the publications at the bottom of this page.

Fertilize caneberries with a well-balanced fertilizer (such as 16-16-16) three times per year: early in the spring, and at one and two months later.

Water requirements for newly planted caneberries are ~1 inch per week from planting until late summer. Established plants will require 1 – 1½ inches per week from mid-June through late summer.  Drip or under-canopy sprinklers are recommended as they reduce the chance of disease in the crown and canes.

Manage weeds by cultivating no deeper than 1-2 inches to avoid damaging the caneberry’s roots. Mulch may also be used to control weeds.

Prune only the floricanes and any damaged canes after the plants stop producing berries in the fall.  See the publication(s) below for additional information about special pruning needs for plants with various growth habits.

Caneberries are sensitive to cold damage, heat damage, and a variety of insect and plant diseases. In general, blackberries are less susceptible than raspberries to these problems. See the publications below for more information.

Do you want to find more berry and fruit resources for your garden? CLICK HERE to heck this collection of resources from OSU Extension.

Sale Emphasizes Native and Pollinator Plants

Plants for sale lined up on tables in a barn.
Over 10,000 plants will be available at the Master Gardener Plant Sale.

For their May plant sale, Benton County Master Gardeners have emphasized growing native and pollinator-friendly plants. The sale, May 4 at the Benton Fairgrounds, includes well over 10,000 plants–vegetable and herb starts, perennials for sun and shade, trees, vines, and shrubs.

This year, the selection includes several thousand plants particularly favored by local pollinators—bees, hummingbirds, and butterflies. Over 80 varieties of native plants include those particularly important for local insects, such as several lupine varieties, blue gilia, goldenrod, and milkweed. Other natives include ferns, vine maples, and shrubs such as red-flowered currant, a particular favorite of hummingbirds.

Many other plants offered are blooming garden cultivars known to be good nectar and pollen sources.  These include many easy-to-grow perennials.  For example, bees and butterflies are particularly drawn to Echinacea, lavender, and catmint. They also favor popular shrubs such as lilac and spiraea.  Hummingbirds love bee balm, penstemon, salvias, and hardy fuchsias, often perching nearby to protect their favorite plants.

Help the local pollinators while you plant a beautiful garden at bargain prices. Master Gardeners will be on hand to help you choose what would grow well in your garden and give tips about how to be successful. All proceeds from the sale support Master Gardener educational projects in our schools, demonstration gardens, and community.

See you at the sale: 9:00 to 3:00 on Saturday, May 4, at the southwest corner of the Benton County Fairgrounds.

–Kathy Clark, OSU Extension Master Gardener Volunteer

Excited about blue orchard mason bees? Check out Nurturing Mason Bees in Your Backyard in Western Oregon, a free publication from OSU Extension.

I grow things that remind me of my southern roots

Woman on a lawn tractor, smling
Susan Morton with her trusty lawn tractor.

Susan Morton brings the wit and wisdom of her career as a forensic scientist to her endeavors as a Master Gardener. Whether she’s playing the role of “Bee Czar” in organizing the Beevent Pollinator Conference, teaching new gardeners to grow produce on a budget in Seed to Supper, or serving on the board of the Linn County Master Gardener Association, Susan always shares a dry and delightful sense of humor. Susan has been a Linn County Master Gardener since 2011 and shared her story in winter, 2019.

A way for non-literate people to read nature

I grew up in the small town of West Point, Georgia, on the banks of the Chattahoochee River about 100 miles south of Atlanta. My father was an engineer, but he came from a long line of farmers and loved to garden. We had about half an acre of fruit and vegetables which we enjoyed all summer. His mother also lived with us and she, too, liked to work in the garden. I was their chief assistant. My job was picking, watering and keeping an eye out for pests. One of my fondest memories is sitting with my grandmother after I had been out picking shelling beans or peas for my mother to cook. My grandmother had very little education, but she knew how to plant by the signs. When I got older, I realized there was nothing magical or superstitious about these signs—they were a way for non-literate people to read nature to know when it was time to plant or harvest various crops. So, if you are in Georgia, plant your sweet corn when the wild dogwood is in full bloom.

A philodendron named Arthur

When I was deciding on a major in college, I was drawn to biology. I had to pick either botany or zoology and picked botany. I figured at least I would not have to chase my specimens. I attended a small women’s’ college which at the time had a very strict policy about students going out at night unescorted, with a male escort being much preferred. I had a philodendron named Arthur which my friends and I would list as an escort on our sign-out forms. And, of course, we took Arthur with us to theaters and concerts so as not to be dishonest. Arthur was cultured as well as cultivated.

In the early years of my career as a forensic scientist, I lived in apartments and could not do much gardening. I always managed to have at least a few house plants. Later on, I bought a small house with a large yard near the San Francisco airport. After years of deprivation, I gardened frantically.

When I put the house on the market, the real estate agent went through the house and made suggestions as to how to stage it. Then I took her to the back yard.  It was a wonderland. Didn’t have any trouble selling that house even in 2009 when the real estate market was in the dumpster.

Cluckingham Palace

As I neared retirement, I realized I had to do some introspection to figure out what I wanted to do with the rest of my life. I had never been big on introspection. Considering what bubbles up on its own, I was not keen on looking in there on purpose. But I did it. To my utter amazement I discovered that what would complete my happiness was chickens. CHICKENS. I decided to move out in the country so as not to have to deal with chicken laws. I came up to look at properties in this area.

After a couple of days of trudging through very gloomy places, I came to the place I am now. I got out of the car and fell in love. Lots of room to garden, but not too much land to take care of. Deer fence. But best of all was the view—over a waterfowl refuge pond with Mary’s Peak framed perfectly between trees. The real estate agent asked if I wanted to see the house inside. I just waved her off and said that if it had indoor plumbing, we were good.

So I got my chickens installed in their fancy coop dubbed Cluckingham Palace, and they give as much joy as I had hoped. After years of being cross-examined in court by lawyers, I find the chickens to be refreshingly noble and intelligent.

I grow some things that remind me of my southern roots. I have to have butter peas in the summer and turnip greens in the winter. I also have a sweetshrub, Calycanthus albus. They grow brown flowers that look like loafer tassels and smell like Jergens hand lotion. Actually, it is the other way around. Jergens Lotion is scented the shrub’s flowers. When I was growing up, everybody had a sweetshrub planted by their trash cans. Trash cans do not smell nice during August in Georgia. The shrubs were supposed to mask some of the aroma.

 Master Gardeners & Seed to Supper

As soon after I moved in as my life permitted, I became a Master Gardener and have made wonderful new friends. I find helping others to enjoy their gardens as much as I enjoy mine gives me great satisfaction.  I also like to think I am keeping pesticide use down by showing people better ways to manage their gardens. Seed to Supper is the type of program that is the reason I became a Master Gardener. Life has been good to me, and I want to give something back and to help those who have not been as fortunate as I have.

Postscript

Now I am supposed to tell something astonishing about myself. Well, I have already confessed that I dated a philodendron in college. Not sure what I can say to top that, but I will give it a try:

  • I have been to Antarctica, Pago Pago, Timbuktu, and Tbilisi, among many other unlikely places
  • I have driven a locomotive
  • I spent an afternoon appearing before the Supreme Court of the Federal Republic of Nigeria impersonating a barrister
  • I single-handedly destroyed communism in Russia by explaining to a Russian housewife the benefits of having shopkeepers competing for her rubles rather than getting a salary, paid out of her taxes, whether they sell anything or not. The Soviet Union fell two years later
  • I won a Russian speaking contest in St. Petersburg. No idea what I said since I do not speak Russian. I may be engaged to be married. In my defense, several vodka toasts had taken place before the contest.

Seed to Supper is a comprehensive six-week beginning gardening course that gives novice, adult gardeners the tools and confidence they need to successfully grow a portion of their own food on a limited budget. CLICK HERE to learn more.

A rose is my connection to my mother

Paula Lupcho in her garden on a sunny winter day in 2019.

Lifetime Master Gardener Paula Lupcho has served over 6,000 hours as a volunteer and was named Benton County Master Gardener of the Year in 2011. She has held many positions on the board of the Benton County Master Gardener Association  and has mentored numerous Master Gardener trainees. Paula shared her story in winter of 2019.

I am a native Californian and grew up in Newport Beach, California. Because we lived on an island in the harbor, I learned how to swim about the same time I learned how to walk. My dad had two passions—deep sea fishing and gardening. My sister got the fishing gene and I got the gardening gene. She hated gardening and I hated fishing that was helped along by persistent seasickness. My mother’s parents were also gardeners/farmers. They had fruit trees, berry bushes, and vegetable beds.   It was a double dose of an inherited gardening imperative.

My earliest memories of gardening aren’t really memories but experiences that were captured in home movies. As a toddler, my sister and I were let loose into the yard with nothing but our undies when my father was out working in the garden. He grew great big tomatoes. We got to run, play, and get thoroughly dirty.   When he watered, we were thoroughly muddy. All was put right by a nice bath that Mom had waiting. I think that sunk into my own parenting mentality because I always thought my boys had a good day at school if the came home dirty.

Currently, my husband and I live in Benton County just west of Philomath. This is the second home we have built and the second garden that I have established from bare dirt.   We started work on the garden in 2008. The only plants on the property were native oaks and hawthorns, and conifers like Doug fir and Grand Fir from an old Christmas tree farm. It is amazing to me to see pictures of the house before it was finished with absolutely nothing in the ground. Today, pictures show a complete garden with fully mature trees, shrubs, perennials, and annuals. It took lots of hard work, but it is deeply rewarding to see it all come to fruition.

In each place that I have lived, I have been exposed to a wide variety of plants as in Southern California, which is a subtropical zone, to the Sierra Nevada alpine zone. The Pacific Northwest offered another huge palette of plants and most of them were unfamiliar to me. During my Master Gardener training, I was is a state of buzzing confusion as people rattled off names of PNW plants that I had never heard of. Over time, most of these plants now seem like old friends. But, wherever I live, I will always have at least 1 rose (with the exception of the Sierras). A rose is my connection to my mother, grandmother, and aunts. They all grew roses. It is one of my favorite memories of my grandmother’s home. Standard roses lined the front walk, and there was a large rose garden in the back. All of them were fragrant. I think Mr. Lincoln is my favorite. It has everything a rose should have; it is a gorgeous velvety red color and has the most wonderful fragrance. It’s perfect.

I suppose I am quite judgmental about plants. I have strong opinions about what a plant should or should not be. Shrubs and trees must have good shape and a strong silhouette—nothing floppy is allowed. Plants that are too exuberant and cause too much work to keep them in check are removed. No yellow or orange flowers are permitted—ever. Golden foliage is okay.   I love annuals. The riot of color that they add to the summer garden makes me happy. These rules have happened over time as I have matured as a gardener as I have found my gardening comfort zone.

Just after we moved to Oregon, I learned about the Master Gardener program. I attended one of the lunchtime lectures conducted by MG volunteers. It was the right time of year to submit an application to join the program. I was accepted and so lucky to be in a great class of trainees. Being a part of the gardening community was like finding my way home. I have loved every minute of being a Master Gardener. Giving back to the community through public service is the core of the program and is personally rewarding. But, I have gotten back so much more than I have given.   My real gardening education has happened over time as I continue to stay active and learn from fellow gardeners, most of whom are far better gardeners than I am. And, I have made lifelong friends along the way.

Do you share Paula’s enthusiasm for ornamentals? Find research-based resources for growing your best flowers, shrubs and trees with OSU Extension.

Barefoot gardener cherishes Albany childhood memories

Judi DeBord grew up in Albany Oregon. After some time away, she has returned to join her local OSU Extension Master Gardener program. She  gardens in neighborhoods where she spent girlhood days climbing street trees. Judi shared her story in November 2018.

A group of people gazes up at a large walnut tree in Albany Oregon.
Judi DeBord (in red) returns to a tree of her girlhood adventures as part of a Master Gardener educational tour.

My hometown is Albany, Oregon. I was born and raised here, and graduated from South Albany High School in a year that will remain unspecified.

One of my earliest memories of gardening are of a pussy willow bush that grew outside my bedroom window. Every spring, my friends and I would pick several branches of the fuzzy-ness and make things out of them. My mother had to deal with the fuzz floating everywhere for days. We grew tomatoes and had apple, pear and plum trees in the back yard. Summer and fall were busy with making apple sauce and making plum, pear and apple leather in the dehydrator. We enjoyed our fruits all winter long.

One of my favorite childhood memories is of climbing the beautiful, old trees in and around downtown Albany. My cousins lived “in town”, and when I spent the night at their house, we’d go off for most of the day, exploring. We climbed any tree we thought we could climb without getting caught or needing help to get back down! Sometimes it was a contest to see who would climb the highest. We also came to know every inch of Bryant Park, scouting for tadpoles, guppies, frogs or any other creature we could catch and fit into our cup or box. Of course, my aunt made us relinquish all captives before we came in the house, unless we managed to sneak into the basement before she saw us!

I grew up outside of town, with open fields all around our house. In mid-summer, the grass and scrub bushes grew taller than we were. We built forts in the grass, forged trails, rode bicycles, picked seed heads to wear, and played until my mother called to us and ordered us in for dinner.

One aspect of gardening I enjoy today is the smell and feel of good soil. I don’t know many people who garden barefoot as much as I do; maybe it’s from all those summers running around barefoot as a child. As soon as it seems warm enough outside, which for me is usually sometime in April, I’ll be out in the garden, with gloves on my hands but shoes on the sideline. Once in a while I’ll pay a small price – a splinter or thistle in my foot – but it always seems worth it.   Maybe someday I’ll invent a ‘tactile gardening sock’ for other barefoot gardeners like me.

Being a Master Gardener volunteer has been on my goal list for a long time. The Master Gardener program offers volunteers an opportunity to learn from nationally recognized experts from all around our state, which is just amazing. I’ve enjoyed volunteering many times before, mostly focusing on educational activities. Having access to resources to help others grow some of their own food, or grow beautiful ornamentals is fun and very fulfilling, even when things don’t go according to plan!

Join Master Gardeners in Linn County Oregon, or take a FREE short gardening class with us! Learn more HERE.

Millersburg gardener shares produce to connect with neighbors

Jesse Garcia joined the OSU Extension Master Gardener Program of Linn County in 2018. Jesse balances a full time career with volunteering and gardening. Raised in Oklahoma by a family of gardeners, he is now at work on creating a garden where he now resides in Linn County. Jesse shared his story in October of 2018.

Man in sunglasses greeting visitors at a garden tour.
Master Gardener volunteer Jesse Garcia greets visitors at Through the Garden Gate in 2018.

Elizabeth Records – OSU Extension: What can you share about an early gardening experience?

Jesse Garcia: My earliest gardening experience would be when I was very young, early grade school age in my hometown of El Reno, Oklahoma. I would go into the garden with my mother. I often asked her questions about the different types of plants, such as tomato, watermelon, and peppers. My mother displayed lots of patience in answering my questions. I truly believe this early experience is what directed my curiosity in gardening that I continue to this day.

ER: Tell us about your current garden – who, what, when and where?

JG: I currently do not have a home garden. I moved to Oregon in December, 2016 and recently bought a house in Millersburg (July, 2018). I am still in the process of landscaping our yard, which is a work in progress. I do plan to continue my home garden. I will put into practice the knowledge/training that I learned from the OSU Extension Office’s Master Garden program. In the past, I grew a vegetable garden for many years in Oklahoma. My garden consisted of many varieties of tomatoes, potatoes, onions, green beans, snow peas, squash, kale, spinach, lettuce, and peppers.

ER: Describe one plant that you grow which reminds you of home.

JG: Growing tomatoes has always reminded me of the times that I spent in the garden with my mother. But my father also influenced my gardening habits. Many years ago, he gave me some Amaryllis belladonna bulbs (also known as “Naked Ladies”) from the family flower garden to transplant in my own garden in Oklahoma. At the time, I only focused on vegetable gardening. “Naked ladies” are now included in my gardening. I hope that I will have some success with them in my future garden even though the growing conditions in Oregon are not similar.

ER: What’s a favorite garden memory—an experience, sound, sensation, smell or taste associated with a favorite garden in your life?

JG: As a very young boy, I was asked to deliver vegetables from the family garden to our neighbors. To this day, I do continue taking vegetables from my home garden, door to door. I do this as a way of getting to know my neighbors.

ER: What does being a Master Gardener volunteer mean to you?

JG: I talked with volunteers at the Master Garden booth (Corvallis Farmer’s Market, July 2017) they encouraged me to apply to the volunteer program, even though I currently work full time. I am so glad that I took the time to complete the application and was accepted into the program. I was able to attend all training sessions and to complete my required volunteer hours for the program.

The class has provided me a very good foundation for gardening in the Pacific Northwest. The Master Garden volunteer experience has been a very rewarding experience. I continue to build upon my gardening network with some of the local fruit growers. I enjoy meeting new people at the Master Garden volunteer events.

ER: What’s one thing that people might be surprised to know about you and/or your garden?

JG: I would have to say my culinary interests. I often try new recipes on the grill and I have become somewhat experienced in smoking meat such as ribs, chicken, brisket and everyone’s favorite (do not laugh) bologna. Yes, in Oklahoma the true pit masters like to include smoked bologna with their finest cuisine.

Did you know that numerous Master Gardener volunteers balance work and volunteering? Learn more about joining us in Linn or Benton Counties.

Planting gardening ideas

Neighborhood Planters Kiosks help build thriving communities

 

A young woman and a dog check out a Neighborhood Planters Kiosk
Community members get gardening ideas from a Neighborhood Planters Kiosk.

Neighborhood Planters Kiosks (NPKs) look a bit like Little Free Libraries, but instead of sharing books, they offer seasonally relevant, research-based gardening tips. NPK is a collaboration of OSU Extension Benton County Master Gardeners, the Corvallis Evening Garden Club, the Corvallis Sustainability Coalition, and the City of Corvallis Civic Beauty and Urban Forestry Group. OSU Extension Master Gardener volunteers Christina Clark and Kathleen Rochester contributed to this story. Learn more at the NPK blog.

Elizabeth Records – OSU Extension:  For someone who has never seen an NPK before, describe what it looks like and where it might be found.

Neighborhood Planter Kiosk team: NPKs (Neighborhood Planters’ Kiosks –a word play on the NPK composition of fertilizer) are bright painted wooden boxes. They are mounted on posts in volunteers’ yards where they can be seen from the street. They can be found in parks, community gardens, and front yards all over Corvallis.

ER: Who is the intended audience for NPKs?

NPK: Our intended audience is anyone who is interested in or might become interested in gardening, sustainable living, and enjoying our outdoor spaces.

ER: What are some sources of inspiration for this project?

NPK: We’d like to build community and share the love of gardening. We’re continuing to try to reach a greater audience with research-based information. Some of the misinformation out there  can lead to discouragement, wasted time and money, or negative effects on our environment.

Gardening is such a fun, healthy, vital part of our lives that we’d like to encourage others to also benefit. We also believe that growing our own food is one of the healthiest things we can do for ourselves, our loved ones, and our planet. Sustainability is never more fun than when we learn to grow something for ourselves!

ER: How do NPKs help fulfill the mission of OSU Extension Service?

NPK: We plant gardening ideas to help build thriving communities! While OSU Extension supports a variety of programs, we focus on gardening education and related community events. Much of the information we share starts with tips from OSU Extension’s monthly gardening calendar. Then our writers add photos and resources to engage our readers. Links on our blog connect them with additional Extension articles that help them get more in depth.

We provide another way to link Extension and all its expertise and knowledge with anyone on the street or in front of a computer. We hope to engage people that may not know how much free, but valuable research-based information could be at their fingertips.

ER: Is there a story that stands out to you about someone interacting with NPK kiosks or blog posts?

NPK: We’ve had views from all over the world. We had one email come in from Victoria in Omaha, Nebraska. She was part of a group trying to start a similar program in their neighborhood; trying to find funding and figure out how to build the kiosks. It was great fun to share our enthusiasm and many building tips and photos.

Have you visited a Neighborhood Planter Kiosk for garden information or inspiration? Share your story with elizabeth.records(at)oregonstate.edu and we’ll post it in future updates. Check out the NPK blog anytime.

 

 

Vet returns to local roots after gardening worldwide

Woman in her 50s-60s, wearing pink top in outdoor setting.
OSU Extension Master Gardener volunteer Debbie Lauer.

Meet Master Gardener volunteer Debbie Lauer. A native Oregonian, Debbie has gardened worldwide during her upbringing in a military family and during her own military service. Debbie has volunteered over 4,000 hours as a Master Gardener volunteer since 2001 and has been an Oregon State University Extension Service Master Gardener volunteer since 2006. We spoke in June 2018.

 

 

OSU Extension: Tell us about an early gardening experience.

Debbie Lauer: My dad would always plant petunias and it was my job to pick off the dead flowers. I used to hate it because they were so sticky. If you look in my garden today, you will find very few petunias – I am done with it. Dad also was in the army and planted a garden everywhere we travelled. We had gardens in Alabama, Kentucky and Texas. Also in Panama, where we grew pineapple.

I come from farming families. My grandfather was a dairy farmer by what is now the Albany airport…. Mother’s dad was a Shedd grass seed farmer. Both sides of the family had flower and vegetable gardens, so it is ingrained all the way through.

OSU: I recall that you also had a military career. Where have you had gardens?

DL: In Germany where I was stationed…we had balcony tomatoes. I would plant tulip bulbs where the landlord would let you. I also gardened in Texas …the standard little window boxes would melt by noon so I figured I’d better join Master Gardeners and learn what would grow there. I had gardens in Alaska, that’s where I really got into it. Up here (back home in Oregon) I have been challenged by the breadth of the plants you can grow.

OSU: What’s a favorite garden memory—a sound, sensation, smell or taste associated with a favorite garden in your life?

DL: My “favorite or most memorable” moment came when I was in middle school, then it was called junior high.  My dad was in Viet Nam, we were living on Colorado Lake Drive. We went out to my Grandparents farm in Shedd.  We were walking through the vegetable garden and my mom pulled a carrot from the ground took it to the water faucet and rinsed the dirt off and broke off a piece of it and gave it to me to taste it.  I had never eaten anything harvested so soon before and I will never forget the earthy smell or the wonderful taste of that warm carrot.

Another memorable moment came the second year after my MG class in Oregon. Don (my husband) pulled out his first potato, a huge one, from the dirt. From the look on his face I knew in that instant he had just become a vegetable gardener for life.

OSU: What does being a Master Gardener volunteer mean to you?

DL: Being a Master Gardener is about sharing gardening with other people. I have learned so much since I first became a MG in TX in 2001. The longer I volunteer the more I enjoy sharing my experiences in the garden and helping other people come to appreciate the joys and understand the challenges of gardening.