Writing Exercise #6

My personal philosophy towards antibiotic is neutral. I have never taken any antibiotic, but I would take it if doctors say so. From prior knowledge, I understand the mechanism of antibiotic is any compound, natural or synthetic, that inhibits the growth or actively kills, microorganisms. The mechanisms of antibiotics include interfering with the cell wall synthesis or maintenance, interfering with nucleic acid synthesis, and interfering with protein synthesis; microorganisms need these functions to be growth and replicate. Most antibiotics do not target specific microbes or strains; antibiotics will lead to severe side effects because of the unspecificity.

Another downside of antibiotics is the problem of antibiotic resistance. Overuse of antibiotics could potentially lead to antibiotic resistance. Due to horizontal transfer, plasmid gene can pass through the different organism. Often the plasmid genes are what carry the resistant gene. The plasmid gene could incorporate with the chromosome DNA, then produce proteins that resistant to antibiotics. Overall, I would use antibiotic if I need to, but I also prefer other better solutions.

Writing Exercise #5

From previous research articles I read from BHS 323, I understand the gut microbiome have been playing an important role in our digestive system. It so interconnected to other parts of our body. Factors that could affect the gut microbiome could be varied; diet, hormone, stress level … etc. In the mini-lecture of this week, we have learned how prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic could affect our gut microbial community. What we consume could affect the diversity of our gut microbial community. In order to have a good impact to my gut

In order to have a good impact on my gut microbial community, I would choose to eat more vegetable,  yogurt, white meat, and brown rice. These food contain fiber and lactic bacteria, which created a good synbiotic consumption to my gut microbiome. Another key point to maintain a good microbial community would be controlling our stress level; exercising is a good way to control our stress.

Writing Exercise #4

The main concept of week 3 was “Gut Microbial Communities in Health and Disease”. Many of ours may not know that microbial influences human health. A single type of microorganisms may not be the causations of health or disease, but a group of different microorganisms can. Different behaviors of us could potentially lead to “out of balance “of microbial communities, and good behaviors could lead to good health conditions. Here is a list of behaviors that I think could cause changes to a gut microbial community:
1. Do not brush teeth vs. brushes teeth frequently: inside of our mouth is a good place to grow bacteria because of good moisture level and temperature. That’s why brushing our teeth regularly was suggested. Not brushing teeth could disrupt the microbial communities in a bad way, possibly cause of cancer. Oppositely, brushing teeth frequently could keep our microbial communities in balance.

2. Having yogurt regality; yogurt contains lactobacillus, which can help our digestive system. Keeping our gut microbial communities seeded in with healthy microbial is a good way to balance our gut microbial communities because the bad microbial will not have space for replication.

3. Balance diet; balance our meal with vegetables, healthy fats and portions with each meal was also a good way to keep our gut microbial communities balance. Eating low-sugar fruits, and a lot of leafy green vegetables will help plant our gut with healthy and diverse bacteria.

Keeping a balance gut microbiome is a good way to keep ourselves relax because the bad balance of gut microbial communities could lead to anxious, depressed, or tired.

Writing Exercise #3

The review article ” Helicobacter pylori and its Effects on Human Health and Disease” (2011), Kamanger, Sheikahattari, and Mohebtash showed how H. pylori been discovered by Marshall and Warren, as well as how H. pylori could influence human health. Kamanger et al provided information of how marshall proved H. pylori that could lead to gastric cancer; he drank H. pylori from Petri dish and symptoms of gastric appeared afterward, the science district did not expect the results and the discovery were proven still. The purpose of this article was to discuss how H. pylori could cause or prevent the formation of diseases in order to improve our understanding on prevention and,  causation of some diseases. This article has potential to provide information on treatments design.

Writing Exercise #2

In the primary research article “Symbiotic gut microbes modulate human metabolic phenotypes” (2008), Li et al showed the correlation between gut microbes and the host metabolic activities; the results of the research provided the foundation for functional metagenomics, as well as other healthcare solutions. Li et al provided evidence from previous research that body microbiome of mice modulated the absorption, storage, and metabolism of dietary lipids; the same facts could also apply to humans, the dietary routine and health condition can directly or indirectly infect the gut microbiome interaction. The purpose of this paper was to find out the makeup of gut microbial communities by using genome sequencing, understanding the microbial communities in order to analyze the composition of gut microbial; understanding how host metabolic phenotype is strongly influenced by the gut microbiome provided a good foundation to solve further health care problems. The study has potential to identify the important associations between changes of bacterial community structure and dynamics of host metabolic patterns; it is useful to find out the relationship between byssinosis and disease.

Writing Exercise #1 prompt

Non-infectious diseases that  I think could influence by microorganisms are:

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Colon Cancer
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Pulmonary disease
  • Asthma

I had read a peer-review article on how Alzheimer’ disease can cause by microorganisms.  We were required to read the article and write a summary of it; mouse models were used in the experiment, and data showed the correlation between microorganism growth and Alzheimer’ disease. Before I read the article, I would never think of the connection between non-infectious diseases and microorganism. Turns out, many researchers have been proved that microorganisms may contribute some non-infectious diseases.  I want to know more information about it and the mechanism behind. Taking BHS 323 could possibly solve the question.