If I were the head of a funding agency, I will be most likely to award funding for researchers that are focusing on the control of inflammatory bowel disease using probiotic, prebiotics, and synbiotics. The reviews we have read in this term “Systematic revies of randomized controlled trials of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotic inflammatory bowel disease”. briefly discussed many previous studies and the results of researchers using probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics. However, different studies have shown to have different results; some of them are counteractive to each other. There are some suggestions that probiotic may be comparably beneficial to the standard therapy of IBD which is aminosalicylates. However, different scenarios of IBD requires different treatments and some of the cases, either probiotic, prebiotics, and synbiotics would help. A more narrative research should be performed to figure these out. The results of the experiment would be helpful and beneficial to the future health care.
The human non-infectious diseases that I could think of that are influenced by microorganisms are:
- choric kidney disease
- GI disorder
- autoimmune disease
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease
- Colon Cancer
Refer to first writing Excercise I did at the beginning of this term, I knew more information about microbes. I added more non-infectious diseases that I think are influenced by microorganisms because I have read more articles during the term, as well as understanding how those microbes could affect us. the most important topics I will take away with me once I have completed the course would be “Microbe and Cancer”, as well as the “Probiotic, Prebiotic, and symbiotic”. The first topic was the one that I was interested at the beginning of the terms, the second one was the one I like, I would never think of probiotic would be used as a treatment for IBD. During the course, I have understood how microbes play roles in human health, as well as how they interact with different systems inside of our bodies.
The five key questions that use interpreting scientific literature are:
- Can experiments detect differences that matter?: In the scientific community, published research is mainly focused on new discovery. So it is important to the experiments could detect and support the differences in the new studies.
- Does the study show causation or correlation?: When setting up the hypothesis, we always wanted to know what causes that the phenomenon. This is important in setting up the hypothesis.
- What is the mechanism?: Knowing the mechanisms of the new findings which also important in supporting the new findings.
- How much do experiments reflect reality?: The proposes of research studies are improving humans life and the science industries. This was also the intention of all research studies.
- Could anything else explain the results?: To avoid controversy, previous studies and data are needed. These not only explains the results; they also have the huge impact in terms of supporting the studies.
To me, the question that would be helpful in discussing controversy is ” Could anything else explains the results?”. Overall, using previous studies as supports could help in reducing controversy.
As we know, the human gut microbiome is also considered as an “organ” since it actually interconected to different systems. Our gut microbes have significant influnences to our mental health; the gut microbes influnences the developments of many mental dieseases, such as depression, anxiety, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia. The gut microbes affect our brains by screcting substances like neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA; the microbes also release molecules which will change the neurochemistry. These can cause localized inflammation , whereby immune cell will also relase immune signals to the host for respones. Dysbiosis was one of the major effects that influnce mental health.
The communication of brain and gut microbes are bidirectional. Multiple studies show that brain could alter the release of hormones, which could affect the activities of microbes and what they release.
As a reviewer, reading someone’s article is a good way to get ideas, as well as improving my writing. However, I don’t feel well to critiques someone else writing since I do not consider myself as a good reviewer. I am not sure if my reviews would help, and I do not like to write bad comments. However, while reviewing other’s paper, I would also check if I have the same mistakes; what was the good part of the paper, if I could apply it to my own writing.
Peer Review is the process of writers making comments on each other’s written work in order to improve writing. It is an important process for science industry; it is designed to help increase the integrity of research paper being published. The Peer review process includes the submission of manuscripts, journal editor screens paper, and decide whether the manuscripts fit the journal. Once the manuscripts fit the philosophy of the journal, they will send the manuscripts to someone who previously published articles in the same field. Reviews will send back the author eventually to revise the manuscripts.
Pros for peer review is getting professional commons from others, which help in improving the articles. Cons of peer review are some ideas of yours might not be expectable by others, and they will give you comment on that, hopefully, you will fix it.
This week, we have read the essay ” What are the consequences of the disappearing human microbiota? ” (2009); by Blaser and Falkow. The article discussed how the disappearing of our microbiota could affect our health in different ways. Appearatally, the regulations of these microbes are important to prevent metabolic syndromes. According to the article, disappearing of H.pylori is the cause of obesity and asthma. Pieces of evidence show that disappearing of the human microbiota was more severe in developed countries. What causes the decreasing exposure to microbes?
Overuse of antibiotic: Antibiotics are widely used nowadays on food and clinical treatments to prevent microbe infections. However, the unspecificity of antibiotics can also wash off many microbes
Lower rates of breastfeeding: Breast milk contains many beneficial microbes that could help to construct a healthy immune system, as well as the digestive system of the baby. Lower breastfeeding rates also lower the exposure of all the good microbiota.
Smaller families: Transmissions of microbes could occur between people. The fewer people in the family, the fewer chances of microbe exposure.
We may not able to see microbe; however, microbes play a crucial role in human health. They are many different types of microbes, some of them are beneficial, some of them are pathogenic. The nurturing microbes we know are probiotics, peoples now a day have been in taking probiotics to construct a healthy digestive system and immunity. Many studies have found that probiotics can be used as a treatment for bowel disorder. Pathogenic microbiota could send signals and “inflammatory response”, they also play roles in a variety of diseases. Our gut microbial composition would also play a circuital role in obesity.
Beneficial microbes we have learned in BHS are prebiotic, probiotic, and symbiotic. Prebiotic is not microbes; they are the substance that is beneficial to construct a more diverse gut microbial communities. One of the prebiotics is fiber. Probiotics are bacteria could help to construct a more healthy immunity, the gut microbial community as well as digestive system. Symbiotic is the combination of both. Articles form the class discussed how probiotic could treat bowel disorders.
In my final paper, I would be started to talk about how beneficial microbes could affect our health in a good well. Afterward, I will be discussed how beneficial bacteria could treat disease; and how we could apply it in the future.
On this week’s mini-lectures and primary research article, gut microbiota of mother and infant was the main focus. The microbiota of mother and infant is interconnected, women could change their behaviors during pregnancy in order to change their vaginal microbial community. The most interesting findings from this week were the mode of delivery could change the newborn microbiome.
The potential factors that the mother or the infant could be exposed to that could influence the colonization of the microbial community in the newborn infant are:
-Mode of delivery; microbiota of newborn would be different between vaginal and C-section. Newborns that delivered by C-section would have microbiota alike to our skin microbiota; however, delivered by C-section would have a potential of getting antibiotic resisted microbiota.
-Human milk microbiome; microbiome in human milk is good and help infants to build up a good gut microbiome.
-Pre- and postnatal antibiotic exposure; a mother who consumed antibiotics during pregnancy could affect the intrapartum antibiotic intervention.
-Diet composition; diet plays a primary role in changing gut microbiome composition before two years old. Brestmilk feeding baby and formula feeding baby have a different microbiome composition after 2 years old.
My personal philosophy towards antibiotic is neutral. I have never taken any antibiotic, but I would take it if doctors say so. From prior knowledge, I understand the mechanism of antibiotic is any compound, natural or synthetic, that inhibits the growth or actively kills, microorganisms. The mechanisms of antibiotics include interfering with the cell wall synthesis or maintenance, interfering with nucleic acid synthesis, and interfering with protein synthesis; microorganisms need these functions to be growth and replicate. Most antibiotics do not target specific microbes or strains; antibiotics will lead to severe side effects because of the unspecificity.
Another downside of antibiotics is the problem of antibiotic resistance. Overuse of antibiotics could potentially lead to antibiotic resistance. Due to horizontal transfer, plasmid gene can pass through the different organism. Often the plasmid genes are what carry the resistant gene. The plasmid gene could incorporate with the chromosome DNA, then produce proteins that resistant to antibiotics. Overall, I would use antibiotic if I need to, but I also prefer other better solutions.