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Rahr, Guido (2018). Why Protect Salmon. Wild Salmon Center. https://www.wildsalmoncenter.org/work/why-protect-salmon/

In the article, Why Protect Salmon, Rahr evaluates the significance of our pacific salmon populations as a food protein source and an important indicator of overall watershed health. More than 137 species depend on our pacific salmon. Additionally, they provide us with an industry worth more than three billion dollars for jobs and local economies. Salmon are a keystone species within our North Pacific Environment. The species are also central to indigenous people and are honored culturally. Stocks are declining however, due to habitat destruction, development, over harvest, invasive species and hatchery bred fish. It is ever important, based upon these factors, that we are utilizing every physical and technological avenue in order to protect our Pacific Salmon species. This includes successful utilization of newer GISystem, mapping, LiDAR, satellite imaging and other geospatial technologies. I wanted to begin this annotated bibliography with an overview of the significance and ecological importance of our pacific salmon species, as we delve into specific methodologies and effectiveness in utilizing geospatial and mapping analysis to generate plans for increasing our salmons success.

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NOAA Fisheries (2014). Economic Benefits of Salmon Restoration. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund. 1-3.

NOAA Fisheries (2014) suggests that our pacific salmon and steelhead are cultural icons of which our communities and economies depend on. Goals for restoring salmon runs to healthy, viable levels should take into consideration the support of local economies and traditions. For their protection, we need strong partnerships of salmon restoration experts, land owners, local governments, state, tribal and federal agencies. Funds should consistently be awarded to projects which benefit other aquatic species, improve riparian habitat and water quality and guide priorities for future restoration investment decisions. In order to determine where such funds go, mapping and geospatial technologies can be utilized to determine which projects are achieving the most success for salmonid populations, where projects are in fact improving riparian habitat and, have the power to document changes in water quality by reflecting sampling data for areas of focus within the mapping platform.

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Lackey, Robert T (2017). Science and Salmon Recovery in New Strategies for Wicked Problems. Oregon State University Press. Ch 3.

In Science and Salmon Recovery, Lackey asks us to consider the current facts in salmonid restoration and management. He first outlines that humans, our activities, economic development and beyond coincide with decreased wild salmon abundance and, that efforts to restore pacific salmon have been technically challenging, politically painful and, that past efforts have been disappointedly unsuccessful. His point, is that we need significantly more scientific information and distribution of scientific information. We can use GISystems to evaluate the impacts of commercial aquaculture, of which Lackey points to as a problem. It may also be useful based on Lackey’s analysis, to use data generated with such scientific systems to promote listing beyond ESA listing, and focus on legislation for native watersheds. We can also use geographic analysis to look at other trends outside of watersheds and native habitat; also evaluating our patterns of energy acquisition which may have an impact, land use, property rights, food sourcing and fishing patterns (via satellite), political divisions in opinions on salmonid restoration, locations of hatchery-produced versus wild salmon (competition), physical cultural divisions and land treaties, impacts of climate change and warming.

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Bisson Peter A, Quinn Thomas P, Reeves Gordon H and Gregory Stanley V (1992). Best Management Practices, Cumulative Effects and Long-Term Trends in Fish Abundance in Pacific Northwest River Systems. Watershed Management. 189-232.

Bisson et. al explore the importance in evaluating trends in fish abundance as they compare to degradation of streams and rivers. There are however, discrepancies in interpreting trends from catch, monitoring and hatchery production alone to evaluate the status of fish populations. In order to establish a best management practice for our pacific salmon populations, we must include measures to preserve physical and biological linkages between streams, riparian zones and upland areas. GISystems can allow us to do this by increasing capacity to evaluate riparian management zones with a greater range of categorized vegetative species, structural diversity, large woody debris, floodplain connections and evaluation of proper ecosystem function.Perhaps even more important, we can extensively evaluate trends in cumulative environmental change and pollutant plumes. GISystems allow us to perform coordinated planning and extensive application of data which was not readily available or communicable previously. We can utilize these technologies to satisfy the necessary interpretations now needed and described by the authors above.

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NOAA Fisheries (N.D). An Introduction to Salmon Recovery Planning under the Endangered Species Act. NOAA Fisheries West Coast Region.

NOAA Fisheries (N.D) describes the extensive economic and cultural benefits of healthy watersheds and rivers. This encompasses the health of our native Pacific Northwest Salmonid species. Planning for salmon enhancement draws upon significant collective knowledge, expertise, communication and partnership action. Parameters for viable salmonid populations can be defined by species abundance, productivity, spatial structure and diversity. Comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of these parameters is highly important amongst all involved stakeholders and the general public as well. Thus, salmon recovery is a shared responsibility for action by all levels of government and involved parties. One of the key tools to evaluating parameters for viable salmon populations and increasing the communication and involvement of stakeholders is establishment of universal GISystems for management. Such systems can be updated to consider new necessary restoration projects, ones in which are successful and lack necessary improvement. We can also utilize them to directly evaluate the parameters of species abundance, productivity and diversity by integrating and sharing field generated data, continuously updated, in an easily accessible and understandable GIPlatform.

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Beechie Timothy J, Stefankiv Oleksandr, Timpanen-Padgham Britta, Hall Jason, Pess George R, Rowse Mindy, Liermann Martin, Fresh Kurt and Ford, Mike (2017). Monitoring Salmon Habitat Status and Trends in Puget Sound. NOAA Technical Memorandum.

In this article, Beechie et. al evaluate approaches to monitoring habitat status and trends within the Puget Sound area. This article is highly technical and includes the GISystem considerations for salmon habitat monitoring: For each monitoring environment, you should stratify sites by natural geomorphic potential, land- cover class, and major population group. For large river and food plain sites, we should consider geomorphic process domains which include glacial valleys, post-glacial valleys, and mountain valleys. Data can also be stratified based upon each salmonid species and individual population. We can use GIsystems to look at the status of habitat based on land-cover class and habitat types. We evaluate habitat status and trends in four salmon and steelhead spawning and rearing environments: large rivers, foodplains, deltas, and the nearshore all of which can be separately evaluated using a GISystem. Such systems allow us to perform analysis on both large and small aquatic environments based on the necessary project size and collaboration with other protection agencies.For areas where streams and floodplains may appear disconnected given fieldwork analysis, LiDAR can be utilized. Riparian buffer width, wood abundance and channel length can be evaluated with aerial photography and integration into an openly available GI Platform. Influence of urbanization and changes in native habitat areas can also be documented over time with former and new satellite imagery. We can see here the powerful tool in which GISystems provide us as it improves land-cover classification, ability to observe and share aerial photography, and to extensively evaluate the status of habitat and riparian areas. GIS is a powerful tool for creating, evaluating and sharing the metrics of salmon habitat protection and enhancement. It is important to evaluate the specific data needed for collection and the methods in which we should choose to sample and share such data.

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Steel E, Fullerton Aimee, Caras Yuko, Sheer Mindi, Olson Patricia, Jensen David, Burke Jennifer, Maher Michael and McElhany Paul (2008). A Spatially Explicit Decision Support System for Watershed-Scale Management of Salmon. Ecology and Society. 13(2):50.

In the article A Spatially Explicit Decision Support System for Watershed-Scale Management of Salmon, Steel et. al evaluate the concept that effective management needs vast spatial extents and input/data from whole watersheds, regions and those whom manage them. They state that most monitoring is conducted at the stream reach scale and that  tools, in the form of GI systems are needed to appropriately scale up results and create biological and habitat response models to evaluate future landscapes, with greater accuracy and precision. We can evaluate conditions of watersheds using GIS layers describing vegetation, road distribution, fish distribution and land ownership. From there, we can create landscape strategies using GIS-based assessments of any impaired riparian, sediment and hydrologic function to select areas and action types. This is also useful for bringing together many individuals from different agencies in order to collaborate and interpret data scientifically. The authors also suggest integration of GISystems for salmon enhancement with “FishEye,” a logical model which combines habitat preferences: channel gradient, bank width, sediment deposition, bed scour and hydrologic regime based upon the individual fish species. We can utilize all of this information provided to us to predict future conditions that would result from our desired watershed and salmonid management strategies. GIS can thus help us predict the performance of many management strategies. This is particularly important because it is what we can make central management and legislative decisions over.

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Visser, R.H (2000). Using Remotely Sensed Imagery and GIS to Monitor and Research Salmon Spawning: A Case Study of the Hanford Reach Fall Chinook. Prepared for the U.S Department of Energy.

In the article Using Remotely Sensed Imagery and GIS to Monitor and Research Salmon Spawning: A Case Study of the Hanford Reach Fall Chinook, Visser assesses the specific uses of remotely sensed imagery in salmonid species protection and habitat restoration. This is finally a method to provide the level of detail needed by fisheries managers to evaluate habitat use and quantity changes within spawning sites. We can quantify redd characteristics using aerial photography and a GISystem as well as monitoring and quantifying spawning activity and habitat use for individual redds and clusters. Then, this can be compared to the relationship with geometric features and processes at a river-reach scale. Thus, GIS analyses can be used to monitor habitat changes in specific locations and in regards to certain levels of use and then, be effectively documented and mapped. Mapping of redds which result from such data collection, for example, delineates quality habitat from sub-optimal spawning habitat. Remotely sensed imagery and its application in a GISystem thus provides quality and quantifiable data which can create/calculate a common unit of measurement for the spatial and habitat characteristics we focus on. Monitoring and quantifying spawner surveying and redd (egg to smolt) success is currently done with in-depth and difficult “on the ground” analysis which is often physically demanding and carries plenty of room for inaccuracies. We can see here how remotely sensed imagery and satellite imaging provides a much simpler and broad scale method for this data collection, in order to streamline protection and restoration efforts.

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Cordell Susan, Questad Erin J, Asher Gregory P, Kinney Kealoha, Thaxton Jarrod M, Uowolo Amanda, Brooks Sam, Chynoweth Mark W (2016). Remote sensing for restoration planning: how the big picture can inform stakeholders.Restoration Ecology (3).

In Remote sensing for restoration planning: how the big picture can inform stakeholders, Cordell et. al share a briefing on the transformation in which satellite imaging and mapping technology has had on restoration planning. Remote sensing and mapping has transformed how land managers, practitioners and policymakers evaluate ecosystem loss, gain and change, with the capacity for analysis at multiple spatial and temporal scales. The question then becomes: how do we integrate this valuable asset into planning, implementing and evaluating restoration projects? GIS and remote sensing allows us to guide our restoration efforts to highly suitable and needed areas and allows for continued satellite-based monitoring. The authors also point out the advances in light detection and ranging, LiDAR, to characterize objectives associated with restoration and identify relevant species and plant functional performance. We now have access to high-resolution terrain data, restoration monitoring and more. We can effectively map and partition the landscape for focused management activities in areas of the highest conservation value. This greatly reduces costs of former data collection and restoration categorization all together. One fallout here however, is the question of how often to sample utilizing remote sensing? Or, do we choose to have continuous satellite-based monitoring of habitat to evaluate restoration impacts, new salmonid redds for protection, potential violations of species protected areas by vessels and fishers, etc. The bottom line, is that our new technological capacities in GIS and remote sensing transform how we evaluate ecosystems and keystone populations for restoration. But, we must continually evaluate our desired or necessary limitations (or lack thereof), to this use.

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Budy, Phaedra and Schaller, Howard (2007). Evaluating Tributary Restoration Potential for Pacific Salmon Recovery. Ecological Applications. 17(4): 1068-1086.

In their article, Budy and Schiller look at GISystems as combined simple mechanistic habitat models which can look at population viability measures and provide systematic categorization to quantify restoration potential in essential habitat. The authors also explore the faults in restoration plans without the utilization of GISystems; many habitat-restoration efforts are relatively small scale and are directed at only a portion of habitat used by Salmon, which are highly mobile organisms. Geospatial analysis allows us to get past this issue and analyze necessary restoration and recovery areas on a large-scale. More specifically, geospatial analysis for salmon recovery allows us to look at locations of hydroelectric dams and assess the impacts. We can also use satellite imaging for Salmon redd identification for protection to aid in egg to smelt survival. Mapping technologies can also identify temperature changes seasonally to evaluate patterns and quantify restoration potentials.  Land-use patterns and geologic attributes are commonly now available through GIS and allow us to bracket the range of restoration potential and to geographically prioritize efforts. All of these specific methods are valuable in prioritizing conservation plans before any further investments or efforts are made. We can use GIS databases to categorically rank habitat quality and continue the evaluation of this categorization to target specific efforts for local agencies and necessary state and federal legislation. If such a methodology can be implemented throughout the pacific northwest, with documented and targeted (localized) efforts and continuous updating for population success and recovery through restoration, GIS becomes a powerful tool for increasing salmon population size and eliciting maximum recovery.

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