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Beck, Charlotte and George T. Jones
2010 Clovis and Western Stemmed: Population Migration and the Meeting of Two Technologies in the Intermountain West American Antiquity 75(1):81-116.
Beck and Jones (2010) find that “Clovis”, as defined elsewhere in the United States in well dated contexts, is lacking in the west. Instead, Beck and Jones find that another lithic technology, the Western Stemmed Tradition, is the dominant lithic technology is the west during “Clovis” time periods elsewhere. Beck and Jones (2010) find that “Clovis” was a late arrival to the Intermountain West and this is reflected in distinctive variations of “Clovis” points that are associated with a “Western Fluted” tradition, rather than the traditional “Clovis” technology present elsewhere in North America. Beck and Jones (2010) present that there are very few well dated “Clovis” or “Western Fluted” projectile point sites in the west compared to the areas east of the Rocky Mountains. Of importance in this article is the introduction of a distinction and comparison of Western Fluted and Clovis points. They find that there is a significant difference between Clovis and Western Fluted points in attributes including Total Length, Maximum Thickness, Basal Indentation/Basal Width, and the Basal Indentation/Basal Width ratio. They state that there is however overlap between Clovis and Western Fluted points on all variables, which would be expected in one were derived from the other. Of importance to my research is the introduction of variables that define “western” Clovis and how they differ from eastern Clovis forms.
Buchanan, Briggs and Mark Collard
2007 Investigating the Peopling of North America through Cladistic Analyses of Early Paleoindian Projectile Points Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 26:366-393.
Buchanan and Collard (2007) present the results of a cladistics methods of analysis of early paleoindian projectile point analysis. Cladistics, according to Buchanan and Collard (2007), is the dominant method of phylogenetic reconstruction used in zoology, botany, and paleontology (367). They used four steps to their cladistics analysis; generation of a character state data matrix, establishment of direction of evolutionary change among the states, construction of a branching diagram of relationships for each character, and compilation of an ensemble cladogram from the character cladograms (368). The use of cladistics in anthropology is relatively new and have been applied to linguistic and material culture in order to shed light on prehistory. In order to determine character states to be used in their cladistics analysis, Briggs and Collard used a digital method of morphometric comparison in order to record a series of landmarks around the projectile point edges. Euclidean distances were used between pairs of landmarks to define key aspects of projectile points that could then be computed. These key aspects could then be used as morphometric character states in cladistics analysis. The character state data was then used to produce cladograms. Using the cladograms produced, Buchanan and Collard (2007) suggest the morphometric variation in early paleoindian projectile point shape is the result of a rapid colonization process that involved fission of populations. The relationships observed in the cladograms also provide evidence in support of a colonization of North America via the Ice-free corridor or the Northwest Coast. Aside from presenting a potential explanation for the morphometric variation observed in paleonindian projectile points, Buchanan and Collard (2007) provide a list of potential character states that can be use in digital morphometric analysis.
Buchanan, Briggs and Mark Collard
2010 A Geometric Morphometrics-Based Assessment of Blade Shape Differences Among Paleoindian Projectile Point Types from Western North America Journal of Archaeological Science 37:350-359.
Blade shape is often part of the typological definition for paleoindian projectile points. These types include Clovis, Folsom, and Plainview style projectile points. While the use of blade shape is commonplace in projectile point typology, Buchanan and Collard (2010) state that the accuracy of these assessments have never been evaluated (350). Utilizing 28 Clovis points, 47 Folsom points, and 111 Plainview points, Buchanan and Collard (2010) implement digital geometric morphometric analysis in order to test this association. Using three primary and 16 secondary digital landmarks, Buchanan and Collard (2010) calculated Euclidean space in order to perform traditional statistical shape analysis. Using MANOVAs and ANOVAs, they tested for blade shape differences between the three typologically defined point assemblages. They also compared the differences in blade shapes that across variations of different lithic raw materials. Their results found that the blade shapes between Clovis and the other two types was significant. However they found no difference between the Folsom and Plainview points. Therefore, based on blade shape you can typologically identify Clovis points from both Folsom and Plainview, but not Folsom from Plainview. These findings were also determined to be independent of raw material quality, and that raw material variability did not result in misclassification. This suggests that either Folsom and Plainview inherited a similar shape from their most common ancestral form, or they have the same shape due to convergent evolution. Use of digital morphometric analysis. Of importance to my research, Buchanan and Collard (2010) provide an example of the landmarks that can be used in the gemometric morphometric analysis of paleoindian projectile point blade shape.
Buchanan, Briggs and Marcus J. Hamilton
2009 A Formal Test of the Origin of Variation in North American Early Paleoindian Projectile Points American Antiquity 74(2):279-298.
Buchanan and Hamilton (2009) test the hypothesis that variation in the form of early paleoindian projectile points are the result of drift and was not indicative of regional adaptation. Early research into the variation of early paleoindian projectile points suggested that the geographic variation in projectile point form was the result of different adaptive strategies being used by different regional populations that were a direct response to environmental conditions. Other research has observed that while there is some differences in form, these are minor, and suggest that the overall similarity of early paleoindian forms is the result of a rapid expansion of a population. Associated with this is rapid expansion are variations in form that are the result of drift and technological adaptation. Looking at fluted projectile points from across North America, Buchanan and Hamilton (2009) collect data on regional environmental data and use matrix correlation statistics to determine which of the two explanations are more supported. They find that there is no significant correlation between projectile point shape and region-specific environmental factors. Instead, their finding support that regional variation is the result of drift, or measurable change in projectile point form that is the result of cultural transmission in finite, naturally fluctuating populations (280). While their study looks at regional variability of paleoindian projectile points, points from the far west are absent due to a lack of reliable dates. My study seeks to perform this analysis on the far western projectile points without the required criterion of a reliable date. Additionally, Buchanan and Hamilton (2009) implement digital analysis of landmarks, which provides a baseline method for my analysis.
Buchanan, Briggs, Michael J. O’Brien, J. David Kilby, Bruce B. Huckell, and Mark Collard
2012 An Assessment of the Impact of Hafting on Paleoindian Point Variability PLoS ONE 7(5): 1-7.
Buchanan et al. (2012) tests the hypothesis that the form of North American paleoindian points are the result of variations in hafting. Under this hypothesis, the haft style that was used would determine the form of paleoindian projectile points. This led to considerably more variation in paleoindian projectile point bases compared to projectile point blades. While this hypothesis had been posited prior to their work, this hypothesis had not been subjected to statistical analysis. Therefore, in order to test this hypothesis, Buchanan et al. (2012) statistically compare the variability of different parts of Clovis projectile points. Looking at 122 Clovis points using digital analysis similar to that of Buchanan and Collard (2007), Buchanan et al. (2012) find that the coefficients of variation that are calculated for the digital characters of the base are not lower than the blade characters. Therefore, more variation exists in the blade than in the base, and the hafting hypothesis as an explanation for paleoindian point form varitation is not supported. Similar to previous morphometric analyses, points from the far west were excluded from their analysis. My study sees to use some of the methods of analysis introduced by Briggs et al. (2012) applied to projectile points from the far west.
Buchanan, Briggs, Metin I. Erin, Matthew T. Boulanger, and Michael J. O’Brien
2015 Size, Shape, Scars, and Spatial Patterning: A Quantitative Assessment of Late Pleistocene (Clovis) Point Resharpening Journal of Archaeological Science Report 3:11-21.
Buchanan et al. (2015) looks at the hypothesis that suggests that Clovis projectile point resharpening effects increase with increased distance from tool stone outcrops. Simply put this hypothesis suggests that projectile points that are found further away from lithic sources will be more intensely sharpened then those located closer to the original lithic source. In order to test this Buchanan et al. (2015) looked at three methods of evaluating resharpening which included comparing projectile point size, shape, and flake scar patterning. Using digital methods of lithic analysis, Buchanan et al. (2015) uses digital landmarks in conjunction with general Procrustes analysis in order to determine the variations in projectile point shape. The data produced from this analysis was then used to determine variations in resharpening that were present in the projectile points recovered from Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio. The results did not support the hypothesis that Clovis points would be smaller and deviate more from the classic Clovis point shape as a result of resharpening. Buchanan et al. (2015) present four possibilities for why their data does not support the resharpening hypothesis: 1. The methods traditionally used to measure resharpening do not actually measure it 2. The point sample used is biased against heavily resharpened points 3. Paleoindian mobility included return trips to outcrops that would create a bimodal distribution 4. Clovis points were not designed nor exploited as “long-life” tools. Buchanan et al. (2015) suggest the fourth explanation is most likely, that paleoindians took complete, unused points with them and when used, they replaced them rather than resharpened them. Buchanan et al. (2015) provides an example of the generalized Procrustes analysis. It is a form of analysis I intend to replicate in my own study.
Buchanan, Briggs, Eileen Johnson, Richaed E. Strauss, and Patrick J. Lewis
2007 A Morphometric Approach to Assessing Late Plaeoindian Projectile Point Variability on the Southern High Plains Plains Anthropologist 52(203):1-21.
Buchanan et al. (2007) report on digital analysis of projectile points from the southern High Plains. They find that often in the high plains there are overlapping definitions and subjectivity in the assignment of projectile point types or styles. In order to provide more insight into this, Buchanan et al. (2007) subject projectile point assemblages from several localities to digital morphometric analysis in order to statistically determine if the variations in form as reflected in different point types are statistically significant. The study used Euclidean distances between pairs of landmarks to allow for the statistical analysis of the projectile point forms. Digital images of the projectile points were assigned 32 landmarks and pseudolandmarks. Ten characters were then used to describe the form of each point. These characters included both traditionally hand recorded via caliper measurements as well as measurements that could not accurately be taken with calipers. Their analysis found that the sources of projectile point variations in form were the result of constraint in form imposed by the raw material. Different lithic materials have different fracture mechanics and Buchanan et al. (2007) find that these mechanics may limit the flintknappers ability to control the shape of the intended product. Their results on variation in outline form find only two different point forms are present. This study is significant to my research in that it suggests that contemporaneous variation in projectile point forms may not be a result of functional response to restrictions of raw material. Buchanan et al. (2007) also utilizes the concept that morphometric analysis of projectile points to provide an example of how lithic analysis can benefit from digital methods. This method of analysis is the baseline of my research.
Buchanan, Briggs, J. David Kilby, Bruce B. Huckell, Michael J. O’Brien, and Mark Collard
2012 A Morphometric Assessment of the Intended Function of Cached Clovis Points PLoS ONE 7(2): 1-13.
Clovis caches represent areas where deposits of artifacts, with little to no manufacturing or maintenance debris, were deposited at the same time. There are 17 caches that are attributed to the Clovis lithic assemblage. There have been a number of hypothesis put forth to explain these. The first is that they were utilized to arm hunting weapons. Some have argued they were the result of ritual or were costly signaling. Finally, some have argued that the larger Clovis points recovered in caches were functionally used as saws. In order to test the hypothesis that Clovis caches were intended to be used to arm groups for later hunting forays, Buchanan et al. (2012) use digital morphometrics to compare the cached Clovis points to those recovered from sites interpreted as kill or camp sites. They find that the shape of the cached Clovis projectile points are similar to those recovered from kill/camp sites, though the cached points are generally larger. Such a finding is what would be expected if the cached projectile points represent unused forms of the same hunting implements. Therefore, Buchanan et al. (2012) suggest it is highly likely that the cached Clovis points represent points that were to be used to arm hunting weapons. Of importance to my research is Buchanan et al’s (2012) discussion of the potential function of Clovis caches. A few of the Clovis caches from the far west will be included in my analysis and their findings provide an initial attempt to explain the function of these caches from which to build upon.
Buchanan, Briggs, Marcus J. Hamilton, J. David Kilby, and Joseph A.M. Gingerich
2016 Lithic Networks Reveal Early Regionalization in Late Pleistocene North America Journal of Archaeological Science 65:114-121.
The most complete archaeological record that is associated with the colonization of North America is the Clovis culture found throughout North America and dating to 13,400-12,500 calendar years before present. There are a number of questions about how the colonization of North America took place, and whether or not Clovis groups were low density populations that maintained contact and shared cultural traditions, including lithic reduction techniques. In order to gain insight into this Buchanan et al. (2016) look at the co-occurrence of different types of raw materials that were used in the production of Clovis lithic artifacts across the continent. Eighty-four Clovis lithic assemblages were included in the analysis, though no artifacts were included from the Far West due to a lack of reliable dates. Buchanan et al. (2016) found that a total of 101 distinct lithic material sources were identified within the assemblages. Network maps were produced of the Clovis lithic assemblages and Buchanan et al. (2016) found that they represent discrete raw material regions which were not the result of overlapping foraging territories, but were instead the result of populations having regionally bounded suites of raw materials. These lithic regions correspond to major differences in regional environments and they lithic sources within were accessed by Clovis groups via a combination of direct acquisition, trade, and exchange. This provides support to a possible regionalization of Clovis cultural diversity, something I intend to further explore in my research.
Buchanan, Briggs, Michael J. O’Brien, and Mark Collard
2015 Continent-Wide or Region-Specific? A Geometric Morphometrics-Based Assessment of Variation in Clovis Point Shape Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 6:145-162.
Buchanan et al. (2015) reports on an attempt to test two hypothesis that have been put forward regarding Clovis points in North America. The first, the continent-wide adaptation hypothesis, states that Clovis points do not vary regionally. The second, the regional environmental adaptation hypothesis, suggests that Clovis points vary regionally, and are a result of Clovis groups utilizing different food acquisition techniques. Clovis points from 30 assemblages were used in the analysis. Again no Clovis points were used from the Far West as these lack reliable dates. Two hundred and forty one Clovis points and Clovis point casts were subjected to digital geometric morphometric analysis. Buchanan et al. (2015) used three landmarks and 20 semilandmarks to capture point shape. Euclidean space was derived from the projected landmarks. In their results they found that the two basal landmarks are the most variable and that variation decreases towards the projectile point tip. The shape variation can also be distinguished into East and West regional subsamples that are statistically significantly different. Eastern Clovis points have deeper basal concavities and wider bases and tips than the Western Clovis points. There are also differences within each of the two major regions that may indicate sub regional shape variation. From this, Buchanan et al. (2015) report that there is no reason to reject a regional environmental adaptation hypothesis. Their findings provide my research with a number of landmarks that can be used in the capturing of projectile point shape as well as a potential explanation for projectile point morphological variation.
Davis, Loren G., Daniel W. Bean, Alex J. Nyers, and David R. Brauner
2015 GLIMR: A GIS-Based Method for the Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Artifacts. Lithic Technology 40(3):199-217.
This article introduces a geographic information systems-based lithic morphometric research (GLiMR) software approach to lithic artifact analysis. Prior to the introduction of digital morphometrics lithic artifact analysis was accomplished largely by hand taken measurements. These measurements, often utilizing tools such as calipers and goniometers, are subjective and a number of differences in the values recorded between researchers were present. In this paper, Davis et al. introduce the GLiMR software approach to digital lithic analysis that uses digital morphometrics in order to generate the geometric properties of shape data, topographic data, and domain aggregate data. Using examples of this digitally generated data in a case study from the Cooper’s Ferry site in Idaho, Davis et al. demonstrate the potential that digital geometric morphometrics offers to lithic analysis. Davis et al. (2015) provides an introduction to the GLiMR software, which will be the method of digital geometric morphometric analysis in my research.Therefore, my research will be directly based on many of the methods of digital geometric morphometric analysis introduced by Davis et al. (2015).
Davis, Loren G., Daniel W. Bean, and Alexander J. Nyers
2017 Morphometric and Technological Attributes of Western Stemmed Tradition Projectile Points Revealed in a Second Artifact Cache from the Cooper’s Ferry Site, Idaho. Unpublished Manuscript, accepted for publication.
Building off the earlier work of Davis et al. 2015, Davis et al. 2017 introduces several novel methods of lithic analysis. These methods of analysis are based on three-dimensional digital scans whose gemometric mophometry are analyzed using the geographic information systems-based lithic morphometric research (GLiMR) software introduced in Davis et al. 2015. These methods are presented as a means of providing potential new ways of studying stone tools via digital means. These new novel measurements are introduced in a case study of a cache of projectile points that was recovered from the Cooper’s Ferry site in Idaho. Davis et al (2017). Davis et al. (2017) introduces a number of new and novel methods of digital geometric morphometric analysis that will be utilized in my research. Additionally, their findings provide a direction from which to begin my own research into the digital geometric morphometric analysis of far west Clovis points.
Morrow, Juliet E. and Toby A. Morrow
1999 Geographic Variation in Fluted Projectile Points: A Hemispheric Perspective American Antiquity 64(2):215-230.
Morrow and Morrow (1999) present the results of the metric analysis of 449 fluted points from North America, 31 from Central America, and 61 from South America. The measurements they used were indicative of the projectile point outlines. Rather than using the actual projectile points themselves, Morrow and Morrow (1999) implemented the use of hand drawn illustrations that are often published in archaeological site reports. The measurements recorded included Total Length, Maximum Width Height, Maximum Width, Basal Width, Basal Concavity Depth, and Maximum Thickness. Morrow and Morrow (1999) used either the value of these measurements reported by the site record author or recorded them themselves using photographs or line drawings in association with handheld calipers. Their results found that fluted projectile points across the “New World” show broad and gradual changes in morphology and technology. Rather than associate these variations as indicative of different environments, Morrow and Morrow (1999) state that these changes are the result of “stylistic drift” (227). Morrow and Morrow (1999) provides the foundations for metric analysis in the determination of regional variation in fluted points. A combination of the measurements they use are the baseline for the novel approaches of digital geometric morphometric analysis. Understanding how these measurements were used in earlier analysis allows for them to be built on in future analyses.
Rondeau, Michael F.
2016 Finding Fluted-Point Sites in the Arid West PaleoAmerica 1(2):209-212.
Rondeau (2016) provides an insight into potential diagnostic “Clovis” age artifacts that may exist outside of the diagnostic fluted Clovis points in the far western portion of North America. Traditionally, archaeologists have relied on the presence of diagnostic artifacts, in this cased a distinctive projectile point, as temporal indicators in areas that lack dateable sediments. However Rondeau (2016) states that there are sites where these distinctive fluted points have been removed by contemporary artifact collectors. Rondeau introduces a number of other uniquely diagnostic artifacts associated with Clovis artifact assemblages that have been identified elsewhere in North America. Rondeau (2016) finds that these diagnostic artifacts found outside the far west are also found within the west, and the ability to identify them is key in identifying “Clovis” age sites that lack intact sediments and diagnostic projectile points. Key to my research, Rondeau (2016) provides diagnostic traits that are indicative of far west regional variations of fluted points. Testing the validity of these diagnostic traits through digital geometric morphometric analysis is what will be explored in my research.
Rondeau, Michael F.
2009 Fluted Points of the Far West Proceeding of the Society for California Archaeology 21:265-274.
Rondeau (2009) reports on his attempt to confront a number of issues that are present in the study of fluted projectile points. Using over 400 projectile points from California, Nevada, and Oregon, Rondeau addresses what defines fluted projectile points and flutes, the amount of variation in fluted points in the Far West, determining what, and if any projectile point attributes are distinctive to the Far West, and the evaluation of hundreds of projectile points from Tulare Lake, California to determine if they are “Clovis”. Rondeau (2009) looks at the issues in defining fluted points including the number of fluted faces and variations between fluting and end thinning. Rondeau (2009) discusses how fluted points have been defined morphologically, technologically, and metrically. In looking at the variation in fluted points observed in specimens from the Far West compared to the rest of North America, Rondeau (2009) looks at variation in size, morphology, and technology. Rondeau (2009) finds that there is a significant degree of variailibty in morphology and technology in fluted points in the Far West and some of these varying attributes may be unique to the Far West. He finds that this variability has the potential to be sorted into recognizable, alternative hypothetical fluted point types. My research will attempt to determine if these variations can be seen and characterized through digital geometric morphometric analysis.
Rondeau, Michael F, Ted Goebel, and Mark B. Estes
2007 Fluted-Point Variability in the Central Great Basin Current Research in the Pleistocene 24:138-141.
Rondeau et al. (2007) presents the results of a comparative analysis of two fluted point collections from Nevada. This analysis was undertaken in an attempt to determine if the fluted points recovered from the Sunshine locality site were similar to those found in Jacks Valley. By looking at the basic hand recorded metric attributes of width and thickness, as well as the attributes of the diagnostic flute, such as flute widths and presence or absence of a flute, Rondeau et al. (2007) finds there are differences between the fluted points assemblages. Rondeau et al. (2007) reports that these difference reflect the similarity of the Sunshine wells points to eastern fluted point styles and the Jacks Valley points being more in line with Western Fluted points. A key section of this article is the identification of features that can be used to distinguish the more eastern Sunshine Well points from Western Clovis, or Fluted, Forms. These include a pronounced post-flute end thinning, grading from fluting to end thinning, decline and absence of basal edge grinding, and the user of inset fluting platforms.
Roper, Donna C. and Brian T. Wygal
2002 The Spatial Component of the Western Clovis Chronology Current Research in the Pleistocene 19:76-78.
Roper and Wygal (2002) report on the relative ages of Clovis technology across North America. They find that the earliest Clovis sites in western North America are in the Southern Plains and potentially the adjacent Southwest. As Clovis extends up throughout the Northern Plains the sites with dated Clovis associations are younger in age. As you get to the far north, there is a lack of Clovis material in what would have been the ice-free corridor in Canada and Alaska. The importance of this article to my research is that it shows that the popular theory in archaeology, that paleoindians arrived in lower North America from the Bering land bridge and brought the Clovis lithic technology with them, is not supported by the lithic record. Instead Roper and Wygal (2002) suggest that it is more likely that Clovis originated in and expanded from the Southeast. This is important as it may affect the directionality and geospatial chronology of the spread of Clovis technology. This provides a perspective from which I can look at the findings of my research.
Sholts, Sabrina B., Dennis J. Stanford, Louise M. Flores, and Sebastian K.T.S. Wӓrmlӓnder
2012 Flake Scar Patterns of Clovis Points Analyzed with a New Digital Morphometrics Approach: Evidence for Direct Transmission of Technological Knowledge Across Early North America Journal of Archaeological Science 39:3018-3026.
Sholts et al. (2012) looks at two ideas that have been presented regarding Clovis period projectile points. The first is that Clovis projectile points represent a uniform projectile point style that existed across North America during the Pleistocene. The second is that rather than one uniform projectile point style, varying Clovis projectile point styles are the result of regional independent technological adaptations. In order to look at these two ideas, Sholts et al. (2012) uses digital morphometrics to analyze 50 Clovis points from nine different contexts. In order to do this they use 3D surface models that were created with a NextEngine desktop 3D laser scanner. The scans were then taken into the RapidWorks software in order to produce a coordinate system representation of the projectile point along the x and y planes and the calculation of z values. Using flake scars contours in conjunction with principal component analysis, Sholts et al. (2012) found that the flake scar contours of the ancient Clovis points were overall very similar and displayed high levels of bifacial symmetry. This lends support to the idea that a relatively standardized knapping technique was practiced in different regions of North America (3025). Sholts et al. (2012) provides my research with the methods to accomplish digital analysis of flake scar contours. It also introduces concepts of 3D laser scanning that will be utilized in my digital geometric morphometric analysis.
Key Additional Resources:
Bradley, Bruce A., Michael B. Collins, and Andrew Hemmings
2010 Clovis Technology International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor.
Slice, Dennis E. (editor)
2005 Modern Morphometrics in Physical Anthropology Plenum Publishers, New York.
Zelditch, Miriam Leah, Donald L. Swiderski, H. David Sheets, and William L. Fink
2004 Geometric Morphometrics for Biologists: A Primer Elsevier, San Diego.
Fluted and Clovis Point Illustration Resources:
Beck, Charlotte and George T. Jones
2009 The Archaeology of the Eastern Nevada Paleoarchaic, Part 1 The Sunshine Locality University of Utah Press.
Boldurian, Anthony T. and John L. Cotter
1999 Clovis Revisited: New Perspectives on Paleoindian Adaptations from Blackwater Draw, New Mexico University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology of Anthropology.
Frison, George C.
1986 The Colby Mammoth Site: Taphonomy and Archaeology of a Clovis Kill in Northern Wyoming University of New Mexico Press.
Frison, George and Bruce Bradley
1999 The Fenn Cache: Clovis Weapons & Tools One Horse Land and Cattle Company
Frison. George C., Dennis J. Stanford, and Matthew G Hill
2014 The Agate Basin Site: A Record of the Paleoindian Occupation of the Northwestern High Plains Eliot Werner Publications
Gramly, Richard Michael
1993 The Richey Clovis Cache: Earliest Americans Along the Columbia River Persimmon Press.
Haynes, C. Vance, and Bruce B. Huckell
2007 Murray Springs: A Clovis Site with Multiple Activity Areas in the San Pedro Valley, Arizona University of Arizona Press.
Kunz, Michael, Michael Bever, and Constance Adkins
2014 The Mesa Site: Paleoindians above the Arctic Circle CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
2016 Los Primero Mexicanos University of Arizona Press
Waters, Michael R., Charlotte D. Pevny, and David L. Carlson
2011 Clovis Lithic Technology: Investigation of a Stratifed Workshop at the Gault Site, Texas Texas A&M University Press
Online Scan Repositories: