Can marine mammals get coronavirus?

By Lisa Hildebrand, MSc student, OSU Department of Fisheries & Wildlife, Marine Mammal Institute, Geospatial Ecology of Marine Megafauna Lab

I want to start my post this week with a disclaimer – I am not a virologist or an epidemiologist. My knowledge and understanding on what a virus is, how it changes and spreads, and predicting its trajectory, is very limited (though it has definitely improved in recent weeks). Nevertheless, I did not want that to stop me from shifting my focus and time currently spent reading about a certain virus in humans, to thinking about viruses in marine mammals. So, after several hours of reading papers and reports, I believe I have a good enough grasp on viruses in marine mammals to write a blog post on this topic.

To answer the question in my title – yes, marine mammals can get coronavirus! Coronaviruses have been detected in several marine mammals – mostly in captive ones (harbor seal, beluga whale, Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin), but it was also detected in a wild harbor seal1. It is at this point where I am going to step back from marine mammals for a moment and give a very short ‘lesson’ on viruses.

Viruses are microscopic infectious agents that replicate inside living cells of organisms. They have the ability to infect all forms of life – anything from bacteria to plants to animals to humans. Nothing is excluded. Viruses are classified similarly to how living organisms are classified. Try to think back to middle school science when your teacher used mnemonic devices like, “Kids prefer candy over fancy green salad” or “Kings play chess on fine glass surfaces”, to get you to remember the Kingdom-Phylum-Class-Order-Family-Genus-Species classification. Well, viruses have almost the same classification tree. The only difference is that instead of Kingdom at the top, viruses have a Realm. As of 2019, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) has defined 5,560 species of viruses in over 1,000 genera and 150 families. Different species of virus are classified based on their genomic material and key elements of structure and replication. That is as far as I am going to go with virus background – back to marine mammals!

Grey seal hauled out along the west coast of the U.K. Source: L. Hildebrand.

So, yes, coronaviruses have been detected in marine mammals before. But, no, they were not the same species of coronavirus that is currently spreading across the globe in humans. Coronavirus, or Coronaviridae, is a family of viruses that contains around 40 species. However, coronavirus is not the family that has plagued marine mammals the most since research on marine mammal diseases began. The infectious disease that I have found to be the most common and recurring in marine mammals is morbillivirus and I will therefore focus on that virus for the rest of this post.

Morbillivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae and hosts of this genus include humans, dogs, cats, cattle, seals, and cetaceans. There are seven described species of morbillivirus, three of which have been detected in marine mammals, namely canine distemper virus (CDV), cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV), and phocine distemper virus (PDV). The earliest, traceable case of morbillivirus in a marine mammal occurred in 1982 in bottlenose dolphins in the Indian and Banana Rivers in Florida2. This case was followed by hundreds of others in subsequent years all along the Atlantic U.S. coast and resulted in the first Unusual Mortality Event (UME; 1987-1988) that was concluded to have been caused by morbillivirus (Table 1).

Table 1. Unusual Mortality Events (UMEs) of marine mammals in the U.S. where the cause was determined to be or is suspected to be morbillivirus. Data obtained from NOAA Fisheries.

Interestingly, at the same time as this 1980s morbillivirus in the US, the first documented marine mammal morbillivirus epidemic occurred in Europe in the North Sea. This outbreak led to the death of more than 23,000 harbor seals, which accounted for roughly 60% of all North Sea harbor seals at the time3. The virus that was isolated from the stranded seals in the North Sea was similar to CDV but not exactly the same. Resultantly, it was described as a new species of morbillivirus and it was therefore the first outbreak of PDV. Another interesting thing about this case in Europe is that while the infection originated at the Danish island of Anholt, new centers of infection appeared quite far from this first epicenter within a relatively short amount of time (~3-4 weeks) from the initial outbreak, some as far as the Irish Sea (~2,000 km away; Figure 1). Harbor seals typically have a limited home range and do not travel such distances, leading scientists to speculate that grey seals may have been a carrier of the virus and transported it from Anholt to haul-out sites in the Irish Sea. Mixed species haul-out sites of harbor and grey seals are very common across the North Sea and is the most logical explanation for the rapid spread of the virus across such distances.

Figure 1. Map of the North Sea showing Anholt island (red marker) and the Irish Sea (white circle).

Harbor seals seem to be the most susceptible to PDV based on all documented cases of PDV outbreaks, however the reason for this pattern remains unknown1. While CDV has only been detected in Baikal and Caspian seals, CeMV has occurred in a larger number of cetaceans including harbor porpoises, striped, bottlenose, Guiana and Fraser’s dolphins, pilot whales, and a minke whale. This list is not extensive as morbillivirus has been found in 23 of the 90 cetacean species. In fact, it has been suggested that CeMV should be divided into more than one species as the morbilliviruses detected in the Northern Hemisphere show significant divergence from those found in the Southern Hemisphere.

Transmission is believed to mostly occur horizontally, meaning that the morbillivirus is passed from one individual to another. This transfer happens when one individual inhales the aerosolized virus breathed out by an infected individual. This is likely the reason why odontocete and pinniped groups are most affected due to their social group behavior and/or high density of individuals within groups4. However, vertical transmission has also been suggested as a possible transmission route as morbillivirus antigens have been detected in the mammary glands of bottlenose dolphins along the U.S. Atlantic Coast5 and striped dolphins in the Mediterranean Sea affected by CeMV6. Thus, it has been postulated that CeMV infected females could transmit the infection to their fetuses and neonates in utero, as well as to their calves during lactation.

Bottlenose dolphins populations have been involved in several UME events related to morbillivirus along the U.S. coasts (Table 1). Source: L. Hildebrand. Image captured under NMFS permit #19116.

Morbilliviruses mostly affect the respiratory and neurologic systems in marine mammals, wherein affected individuals may display ocular and naval discharge, erratic swimming, respiratory distress, raised body temperature, and/or cachexia (weakness and wasting away of the body due to severe illness). However, most diagnoses occur post-mortem. Some individuals may survive the initial acute infection of morbillivirus, yet the general weakening of the immune system will make individuals more susceptible to other infections, diseases, and disturbance events7.

It is impossible to know whether marine mammals take precautions when a virus has taken grip of a group or population, or if marine mammals even have an awareness of such things occurring. There obviously is no such thing as an emergency room or a doctor in the lives of marine mammals, but do individuals perhaps demonstrate social distancing by increasing the space between each other when traveling in groups? Do groups decrease their traveling distances or foraging ranges to isolate themselves in a smaller area? Are sick individuals ‘quarantined’ by being forced out of a group? These are just some of the questions I have been asking myself while working from home (day 16 for me now). I hope you are all staying safe and healthy and have enjoyed distracting yourselves from thinking about one virus to learn about another in a different kind of mammal.

Literature cited

1 Bossart, G. D., and P. J. Duignan. 2018. Emerging viruses in marine mammals. CAB Reviews 13(52): doi:10.1079/PAVSNNR201913052.

2 Duignan, P. J., C. House, D. K. Odell, R. S. Wells, L. J. Hansen, M. T. Walsh, D. J. St. Aubin, B. K. Rima, and J. R. Geraci. 1996. Morbillivirus infection in bottlenose dolphins: evidence for recurrent epizootics in the western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Marine Mammal Science 12(4):499-515.

3 Härkönen, T., R. Dietz, P. Reijnders, J. Teilmann, K. Harding, A. Hall, S. Brasseur, U. Siebert, S. J. Goodman, P. D. Jepson, T. D. Rasmussen, and P. Thompson. 2006. A review of the 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus epidemics in European harbor seals. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 68:115-130.

4 Van Bressem, M-F., P. J. Duignan, A. Banyard, M. Barbieri, K. M. Colegrove, S. De Guise, G. Di Guardo, A. Dobson, M. Domingo, D. Fauquier, A. Fernandez, T. Goldstein, B. Grenfell, K. R. Groch, F. Gulland, B. A. Jensen, P. D. Jepson, A. Hall, T. Kuiken, S. Mazzariol, S. E. Morris, O. Nielsen, J. A. Raga, T. K. Rowles, J. Saliki, E. Sierra, N. Stephens, B. Stone, I. Tomo, J. Wang, T. Waltzek, and J. F. X. Wellehan. 2014. Cetacean morbillivirus: current knowledge and future directions. Viruses 6(12):5145-5181.

5 Schulman, F. Y., T. P. Lipscomb, D. Moffett, A. E. Krafft, J. H. Lichy, M. M. Tsai, J. K. Taubenberger, and S. Kennedy. 1997. Histologic, immunohistochemical, and polymerase chain reaction studies of bottlenose dolphins from the 1987-1988 United States Atlantic coast epizootic. Veterinary Pathology 34(4):288-295.

6 Domingo, M., J. Visa, M. Pumarola, A. J. Marco, L. Ferrer, R. Rabanal, and S. Kennedy. 1992. Pathologic and immunocytochemical studies of morbillivirus infection in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Veterinary Pathology 29(1):1-10.

7 Wellehan, J., and G. Cortes-Hinojosa. 2019. Marine Mammal Viruses. Fowler’s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Current Therapy 9:597-602.

Empty room, full zoom!

By Leila Lemos, PhD (no more PhD candidate!), OSU Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Geospatial Ecology of Marine Megafauna Lab

Did you read the byline above? Yes! I finally became a PhD last week and I will not be signing as a PhD candidate anymore. The past few months have been really challenging as I wrapped up my PhD, sent my written dissertation to my committee and synthesized all of the results of my four different chapters into a single presentation. On top of that I had family members visiting me for my defense in the middle of this whole coronavirus chaos.

For my PhD defense, everybody was encouraged to watch it online to help contain the virus spread. There were around 10 people in the room seated with at least two empty chairs between each other. I usually get a bit nervous with full rooms and public speaking, so that was a plus for me. However, I was delighted to hear that there were 61 people watching my defense online (Fig. 01), and I was thrilled to share the results of almost five years of research on this amazing project about gray whale body condition, hormones, and associations with ambient noise.

Figure 01: Tweet by the GEMMLab and retweet by the Hatfield Student Organization, showing me during my defense, and a post-defense photo with GEMMLab members (Clara Bird, Lisa Hildebrand, Leigh Torres, me, Dawn Barlow, and Alexa Kownacki – ignoring social distancing for a quick photo).
Source: Twitter (2020).

One of the questions I got from one of my committee members, Dr. Kathleen Hunt, in the closed-door session of my defense that actually motivated me to write this blog was: “what do I expect would happen to the whales during this coronavirus situation”. That made me think of the Rolland et al. (2012) article immediately, which looked into North Atlantic Right Whale (NARWs) cortisol responses to decreased ship traffic and ambient noise after the 9/11 event. Those authors found that NARWs decreased their overall cortisol (i.e., stress-related hormone) concentrations, supporting the theory that noise caused by ship traffic affects the physiology of these animals. Thus, I would expect the same to occur with gray whales in the Pacific northwest. If vessel activities in general are reduced, we can expect a quieter and cleaner environment, which would allow the animals and overall nature to “breath”.

In fact, multiple news stories over the last days have pointed out declines in air pollution (Fig. 02) and cleaner waters with no boat traffic (Fig. 03), which demonstrate how poorly we treat the environment during “normal” times.

Figure 02: NASA’s Earth Observatory pollution satellites show “significant decreases” in air pollution over China since the coronavirus outbreak began.
Source: NASA (2020).

 

Figure 03: Clear water is seen in Venice’s canals due to less tourists, motorboats and pollution, as the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues, in Venice, Italy, March 18, 2020.
Source: Newburger (2020).

It is impressive to see how fast nature can take back what we, humans, have been taking from it. In addition, there were lots of photos that went viral on Twitter of animals returning to urban areas, including fish swarms, swans, dolphins, and wild boars. Even though there are reports saying that the apparition of some of these animals is fake (Daly 2020), it definitely can make us all reflect on how dense tourism, boat traffic, and overall anthropogenic activities impacts and changes the environment. Perhaps once this coronavirus scare is over people may act in ways that better balance these activities with also allowing our planet to keep breathing.

Here you can see some of these tweets:

 

The Guardian also added a video showing some of these cases:

Source: Guardian News (2020).

 

In a near future, it will also be a great moment for researchers to evaluate potential shifts in ecosystem pollution, flora, and evaluate physiological responses in bioindicator species to inform management and conservation efforts, setting up potential thresholds for these activities. As I mentioned before, I worked with gray whale body condition, hormone quantification, and associations with ambient noise in my PhD project. I explored an association between cortisol levels and ambient noise, and now, with a reduction in overall vessel traffic, would be an ideal moment to see if cortisol levels would decrease in this population. The problem is that we are not able to leave our houses for now to do research. But maybe other variables can be evaluated once this chaos passes. Maybe it will be reflected in individual body condition and reproductive rates, maybe we will see fewer signs of fisheries interactions, or maybe we just need to be creative and think of other possible ways.

Efforts to identify these potential changes and setting up thresholds for these activities may aid in building a planet that will be in equilibrium, and maybe declines in air pollution, and clearer waters will be more common and the apparition of species in urban areas will not be fake news.

 

References:

Daly, N. 2020. Fake animal news abounds on social media as coronavirus upends life. National Geographic. Accessed on 03/23/2020 at https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2020/03 /coronavirus-pandemic-fake-animal-viral-social-media-posts/#close 

Guardian News. 2020. Dolphins and fish: nature moves into spaces left empty by Italian coronavirus quarantine. Accessed on 03/23/2020 at https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_ continue=89&v=jv0DLTVfwIc&feature=emb_logo

NASA. 2020. Airborne Nitrogen Dioxide Plummets Over China. Earth Observatory NASA. Accessed on 03/23/2020 at https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/146362/airborne-nitrogen-dioxide-plummets-over-china

Newburger, E. 2020. Air pollution falls as coronavirus slows travel, but scientists warn of longer-term threat to climate change progress. CNBC. Accessed on 03/23/2020 at https://www.cnbc. com/2020/03/21/air-pollution-falls-as-coronavirus-slows-travel-but-it-forms-a-new-threat.html

Rolland, R. M., S. E. Parks, K. E. Hunt, M. Castellote, P. J. Corkeron, D. P. Nowacek, S. K. Wasser, and S. D. Kraus. 2012. Evidence that ship noise increases stress in right whales Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279:2363–2368.

Coding stories, tips, and tricks

Clara Bird1 and Karen Lohman2

1Masters Student in Wildlife Science, Geospatial Ecology of Marine Megafauna Lab

2Masters Student in Wildlife Science, Cetacean Conservation and Genomics Laboratory

In a departure from my typical science-focused blog, this week I thought I would share more about myself. This week I was inspired by International’s Woman’s Day and, with some reflection on the last eight months as a graduate student, I decided to look back on the role that coding has played in my life. We hear about how much coding can be empowering but I thought it might be cool to talk about my personal experience of feeling empowered by coding. I’ve also invited a fellow grad student in the Marine Mammal Institute, Karen Lohman, to co-author this post. We’re going to briefly talk about our experience with coding and then finish with advice for getting started with coding and coding for data analysis.

Our Stories

Clara

I’ve only been coding for a little over two and a half years. In summer 2017 I did an NSF REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) at Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences and for my project I taught myself python (with the support of a post-doc) for a data analysis project. During those 10 weeks, I coded all day, every workday. From that experience, I not only acquired the hard skill of programming, but I gained a good amount of confidence in myself, and here’s why: For the first three years of my undergraduate career coding was a daunting skill that I knew I would eventually need but did not know where to start. So, I essentially ended up learning by jumping off the deep end. I found the immersion experience to be the most effective learning method for me. With coding, you find out if you got something right (or wrong) almost instantaneously. I’ve found that this is a double-edged sword. It means that you can easily have days where everything goes wrong. But, the feeling when it finally works is what I think of when I hear the term empowerment. I’m not quite sure how to put it into words, but it’s a combination of independence, confidence, and success. 

Aside from learning the fundamentals, I finished that summer with confidence in my ability to teach myself not just new coding skills, but other skills as well. I think that feeling confident in my ability to learn something new has been the most helpful aspect to allow me to hit the ground running in grad school and also keeping the ‘imposter syndrome’ at bay (most of the time).

Clara’s Favorite Command: pd.groupby (python) – Say you have a column of measurements and a second column with the field site of each location. If you wanted the mean of the measurement per each location, you could use groupby to get this. It would look like this: dataframe.groupby(‘Location’)[‘Measurement’].mean().reset_index()

Karen

I’m quite new to coding, but once I started learning I was completely enchanted! I was first introduced to coding while working as a field assistant for a PhD student (a true R wizard who has since developed deep learning computer vision packages for automated camera trap image analysis) in the cloud forest of the Ecuadorian Andes. This remote jungle was where I first saw how useful coding can be for data management and analysis. It was a strange juxtaposition between being fully immersed in nature for remote field work and learning to think along the lines of coding syntax. It wasn’t the typical introduction to R most people have, but it was an effective hook. We were able to produce preliminary figures and analysis as we collected data, which made a tough field season more rewarding. Coding gave us instant results and motivation.

I committed to fully learning how to code during my first year of graduate school. I first learned linux/command line and python, and then I started working in R that following summer. My graduate research uses population genetics/genomics to better understand the migratory connections of humpback whales. This research means I spend a great deal of time working to develop bioinformatics and big data skills, an essential skill for this area of research and a goal for my career. For me, coding is a skill that only returns what you put in; you can learn to code quite quickly, if you devote the time. After a year of intense learning and struggle, I am writing better code every day.

In grad school research progress can be nebulous, but for me coding has become a concrete way to measure success. If my code ran, I have a win for the week. If not, then I have a clear place to start working the next day. These “tiny wins” are adding up, and coding has become a huge confidence boost.

Karen’s Favorite Command: grep (linux) – Searches for a string pattern and prints all lines containing a match to the screen. Grep has a variety of flags making this a versatile command I use every time I’m working in linux.

Advice

Getting Started

  • Be kind to yourself, think of it as a foreign language. It takes a long time and a lot of practice.
  • Once you know the fundamental concepts in any language, learning another will be easier (we promise!).
  • Ask for help! The chances that you have run into a unique error are quite small, someone out there has already solved your problem, whether it’s a lab mate or another researcher you find on Google!

Coding Tips

1. Set yourself up for success by formatting your datasheets properly

  • Instead of making your spreadsheet easy to read, try and think about how you want to use the data in the analysis.
  • Avoid formatting (merged cells, wrap text) and spaces in headers
  • Try to think ahead when formatting your spreadsheet
    • Maybe chat with someone who has experience and get their advice!

2. Start with a plan, start on paper

This low-tech solution saves countless hours of code confusion. It can be especially helpful when manipulating large data frames or in multistep analysis. Drawing out the structure of your data and checking it frequently in your code (with ‘head’ in R/linux) after manipulation can keep you on track. It is easy to code yourself into circles when you don’t have a clear understanding of what you’re trying to do in each step. Or worse, you could end up with code that runs, but doesn’t conduct the analysis you intended, or needed to do.

3. Good organization and habits will get you far

There is an excellent blog by Nice R Code on project organization and file structure. I highly recommend reading and implementing their self-contained scripting suggestions. The further you get into your data analysis the more object, directory, and function names you have to remember. Develop a naming scheme that makes sense for your project (i.e. flexible, number based, etc.) and stick with it. Temporary object names in functions or code blocks can be a good way to clarify what is the code-in-progress or the code result.

Figure 1. An example of project based workflow directory organization from Nice R Code (https://nicercode.github.io/blog/2013-04-05-projects/ )

4. Annotate. Then annotate some more.

Make comments in your code so you can remember what each section or line is for. This makes debugging much easier! Annotation is also a good way to stay on track as you code, because you’ll be describing the goal of every line (remember tip 1?). If you’re following a tutorial (or STACKoverflow answer), copy the web address into your annotation so you can find it later. At the end of a coding session, make a quick note of your thought process so it’s easier to pick up when you come back. It’s also a good habit to add some ‘metadata’ details to the top of your script describing what the script is intended for, what the input files are, the expected outputs, and any other pertinent details for that script. Your future self will thank you!

Figure 2. Example code with comments explaining the purpose of each line.

5. Get with git/github already

Github is a great way to manage version control. Remember how life-changing the advent of dropbox was? This is like that, but for code! It’s also become a great open-source repository for newly developed code and packages. In addition to backing up and storing your code, GitHub has become a ‘coding CV’ that other researchers look to when hiring.

Wondering how to get started with GitHub? Check out this guide: https://guides.github.com/activities/hello-world/

Looking for a good text/code editor? Check out atom (https://atom.io/), you can push your edits straight to git from here.

6. You don’t have to learn everything, but you should probably learn the R Tidyverse ASAP

Tidyverse is a collection of data manipulation packages that make data wrangling a breeze. It also includes ggplot, an incredibly versatile data visualization package. For python users hesitant to start working in R, Tidyverse is a great place to start. The syntax will feel more familiar to python, and it has wonderful documentation online. It’s also similar to the awk/sed tools from linux, as dplyr removes any need to write loops. Loops in any language are awful, learn how to do them, and then how to avoid them.

7. Functions!

Break your code out into blocks that can be run as functions! This allows easier repetition of data analysis, in a more readable format. If you need to call your functions across multiple scripts, put them all into one ‘function.R’ script and source them in your working scripts. This approach ensures that all the scripts can access the same function, without copy and pasting it into multiple scripts. Then if you edit the function, it is changed in one place and passed to all dependent scripts.

8. Don’t take error messages personally

  • Repeat after me: Everyone googles for every other line of code, everyone forgets the command some (….er every) time.
  • Debugging is a lifestyle, not a task item.
  • One way to make it less painful is to keep a list of fixes that you find yourself needing multiple times. And ask for help when you’re stuck!

9. Troubleshooting

  • Know that you’re supposed to google but not sure what?
    • start by copying and pasting the error message
  • When I started it was hard to know how to phrase what I wanted, these might be some common terms
    • A dataframe is the coding equivalent of a spreadsheet/table
    • Do you want to combine two dataframes side by side? That’s a merge
    • Do you want to stack one dataframe on top of another? That’s concatenating
    • Do you want to get the average (or some other statistic) of values in a column that are all from one group or category? Check out group by or aggregate
    • A loop is when you loop through every value in a column or list and do something with it (use it in an equation, use it in an if/else statement, etc).

Favorite Coding Resource (other than github….)

  • Learnxinyminutes.com
    • This is great ‘one stop googling’ for coding in almost any language! I frequently switch between coding languages, and as a result almost always have this open to check syntax.
  • https://swirlstats.com/
    • This is a really good resource for getting an introduction to R

Parting Thoughts

We hope that our stories and advice have been helpful! Like many skills, you tend to only see people once they have made it over the learning curve. But as you’ve read Karen and I both started recently and felt intimidated at the beginning. So, be patient, be kind to yourself, believe in yourself, and good luck!

Marine heatwaves and their impact on marine mammals

By Dawn Barlow, PhD student, OSU Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Geospatial Ecology of Marine Megafauna Lab

In recent years, anomalously warm ocean temperatures known as “marine heatwaves” have sparked considerable attention and concern around the world. Marine heatwaves (MHW) occur when seawater temperatures rise above a seasonal threshold (greater than the 90th percentile) for five consecutive days or longer (Hobday et al. 2016; Fig. 1). With global ocean temperatures continuing to rise, we are likely to see more frequent and more intense MHW conditions in the future. Indeed, the global prevalence of MHWs is increasing, with a 34% rise in frequency, a 17%  increase in duration, and a 54% increase in annual MHW days globally since 1925 (Oliver et al. 2018). With sustained anomalously warm water temperatures come a range of ecological, sociological, and economic consequences. These impacts include changes in water column structure, primary production, species composition, marine life distribution and health, and fisheries management including closures and quota changes (Oliver et al. 2018).

Figure 1. Illustration of how marine heatwaves are defined. Source: marineheatwaves.org

The notorious “warm blob” was an MHW event that plagued the northeast Pacific Ocean from 2014-2016. Some of the most notable consequences of this MHW were extremely high levels of domoic acid, extreme changes in the biodiversity of pelagic species, and an unprecedented delay in the opening of the Dungeness crab fishery, which is an important and lucrative fishery for the West Coast of the United States (Santora et al. 2020). The “warm blob” directly impacted the California Current ecosystem, which is typically a highly productive coastal area driven by seasonal upwelling. Yet, as a consequence of the 2014-2016 MHW, upwelling habitat was compressed and constricted to the coastal boundary, resulting in a contraction in available habitat for humpback whales and a shift in their prey (Santora et al. 2020; Fig. 2).

Figure 2. A figure from Santora et al. 2020 illustrating the compression in available upwelling habitat, defined by areas with SST<12°C (delineated by the black line), during the 2014-2016 marine heatwave in the California Current ecosystem.

Shifting to an example from another part of the world, the austral summer of 2015-2016 coincided with a strong regional MHW in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, which lasted for 251 days and had a maximum intensity of 2.9°C above the climatological average (Oliver et al. 2017). Subsequently, the conditions were linked to a significant shift in zooplankton species composition and abundance in Australia (Evans et al. 2020). Ocean warming, including MHWs, also appears to decrease primary production in the Tasman Sea and large portions of New Zealand’s marine ecosystem (Chiswell & Sutton 2020). In New Zealand’s South Taranaki Bight region, where we study the ecology of blue whales, we observed a shift in blue whale distribution in the MWH conditions of February 2016 relative to more typical ocean conditions in 2014 and 2017 (Fig. 3). The first chapter of my dissertation includes a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2016 MHW on New Zealand oceanography, krill, and blue whales, documenting how the warm, stratified water column of 2016 led to consequences across multiple trophic levels, from phytoplankton, to zooplankton, to whales.

Figure 3. Maps showing monthly sea surface temperature (SST) in the South Taranaki Bight region of New Zealand during our three years of survey effort to document blue whale distribution (February 2014, 2016, and 2017). Vessel tracklines are shown in black, with blue whale sighting locations shown in dark red. Red circles are scaled by the number of blue whales observed at each sighting. The color ramp of SST values is consistent across the three maps, making the dramatically warmer ocean conditions of 2016 evident.

The response of marine mammals is tightly linked to shifts in their environment and prey (Silber et al. 2017). With MHWs and changing ocean conditions, there will likely be “winners” and “losers” among marine predators including large whales. Blue whales are highly selective krill specialists (Nickels et al. 2019), whereas other species of whales, such as humpback whales, have evolved flexible feeding tactics that allow them to switch target prey species when needed (Cade et al. 2020). In California, humpback whales have been shown to switch their primary prey from krill to fish during warm years (Fossette et al. 2017, Santora et al. 2020). By contrast, blue whales shift their distribution in response to changing krill availability during warm years (Fossette et al. 2017), however this strategy comes with increased risk and energetic cost associated with searching for prey in new areas. Furthermore, in instances when a prey resource such as krill becomes increasingly scarce for a multi-year period (Santora et al. 2020), krill specialist predators such as blue whales are at a considerable disadvantage. It is also important to acknowledge that although the humpbacks in California may at first seem to have a winning strategy for adaptation by switching their food source, this tactic may come with unforeseen consequences. Their distribution overlapped substantially with Dungeness crab fishing gear during MHW conditions in the warm blob years, resulting in record numbers of entanglements that may have population-level repercussions (Santora et al. 2020).

While this is certainly not the most light-hearted blog topic, I believe it is an important one. As warming ocean temperatures contribute to the increase in frequency, intensity, and duration of extreme conditions such as MHW events, it is paramount that we understand their impacts and take informed management actions to mitigate consequences, such as lethal entanglements as a result of compressed whale habitat. But perhaps more importantly, even as we do our best to manage consequences, it is critical that we as individuals realize the role we have to play in reducing the root cause of warming oceans, by being conscious consumers and being mindful of the impact our actions have on the climate. 

References

Cade DE, Carey N, Domenici P, Potvin J, Goldbogen JA (2020) Predator-informed looming stimulus experiments reveal how large filter feeding whales capture highly maneuverable forage fish. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.

Chiswell SM, Sutton PJH (2020) Relationships between long-term ocean warming, marine heat waves and primary production in the New Zealand region. New Zeal J Mar Freshw Res.

Evans R, Lea MA, Hindell MA, Swadling KM (2020) Significant shifts in coastal zooplankton populations through the 2015/16 Tasman Sea marine heatwave. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci.

Fossette S, Abrahms B, Hazen EL, Bograd SJ, Zilliacus KM, Calambokidis J, Burrows JA, Goldbogen JA, Harvey JT, Marinovic B, Tershy B, Croll DA (2017) Resource partitioning facilitates coexistence in sympatric cetaceans in the California Current. Ecol Evol.

Hobday AJ, Alexander L V., Perkins SE, Smale DA, Straub SC, Oliver ECJ, Benthuysen JA, Burrows MT, Donat MG, Feng M, Holbrook NJ, Moore PJ, Scannell HA, Sen Gupta A, Wernberg T (2016) A hierarchical approach to defining marine heatwaves. Prog Oceanogr.

Nickels CF, Sala LM, Ohman MD (2019) The euphausiid prey field for blue whales around a steep bathymetric feature in the southern California current system. Limnol Oceanogr.

Oliver ECJ, Benthuysen JA, Bindoff NL, Hobday AJ, Holbrook NJ, Mundy CN, Perkins-Kirkpatrick SE (2017) The unprecedented 2015/16 Tasman Sea marine heatwave. Nat Commun.

Oliver ECJ, Donat MG, Burrows MT, Moore PJ, Smale DA, Alexander L V., Benthuysen JA, Feng M, Sen Gupta A, Hobday AJ, Holbrook NJ, Perkins-Kirkpatrick SE, Scannell HA, Straub SC, Wernberg T (2018) Longer and more frequent marine heatwaves over the past century. Nat Commun.

Santora JA, Mantua NJ, Schroeder ID, Field JC, Hazen EL, Bograd SJ, Sydeman WJ, Wells BK, Calambokidis J, Saez L, Lawson D, Forney KA (2020) Habitat compression and ecosystem shifts as potential links between marine heatwave and record whale entanglements. Nat Commun.

Silber GK, Lettrich MD, Thomas PO, Baker JD, Baumgartner M, Becker EA, Boveng P, Dick DM, Fiechter J, Forcada J, Forney KA, Griffis RB, Hare JA, Hobday AJ, Howell D, Laidre KL, Mantua N, Quakenbush L, Santora JA, Stafford KM, Spencer P, Stock C, Sydeman W, Van Houtan K, Waples RS (2017) Projecting marine mammal distribution in a changing climate. Front Mar Sci.

Toxins in Marine Mammals: a Story

By: Alexa Kownacki, Ph.D. Student, OSU Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Geospatial Ecology of Marine Megafauna Lab

As technology has developed over the past ten years, toxins in marine mammals have become an emerging issue. Environmental toxins are anything that can pose a risk to the health of plants or animals at a dosage. They can be natural or synthetic with varying levels of toxicity based on the organism and its physiology. Most prior research on the impacts toxins before the 2000s was conducted on land or in streams because of human proximity to these environments. However. with advancements in sampling methods, increasing precision in laboratory testing, and additional focus from researchers, marine mammals are being assessed for toxin loads more regularly.

A dolphin swims through a diesel slick caused by a small oil spill in a port. (Image Source: The Ocean Update Blog)

Marine mammals live most of their lives in the ocean or other aquatic systems, which requires additional insulation for protection from both cold temperatures and water exposure. This added insulation can take the form of lipid rich blubber, or fur and hair. Many organic toxins are lipid soluble and therefore are more readily found and stored in fatty tissues. When an organic toxin like a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is released into the environment from an old electrical transformer, it persists in sediments. As these sediments travel down rivers and into the ocean, these toxic substances slowly degrade in the environment and are lipophilic (attracted to fat). Small marine critters eat the sediment with small quantities of toxins, then larger critters eat those small critters and ingest larger quantities of toxins. This process is called biomagnification. By the time a dolphin consumes large contaminated fishes, the chemical levels may have reached a toxic level.

The process by which PCBs accumulate in marine mammals from small particles up to high concentrations in lipid layers. (Image Source: World Ocean Review)

Marine mammal scientists are teaming with biochemists and ecotoxicologists to better understand which toxins are more lethal and have more severe long-term effects on marine mammals, such as decreased reproduction rates, lowered immune systems, and neurocognitive delays. Studies have already shown that higher contaminant loads in dolphins cause all three of these negative effects (Trego et al. 2019). As a component of my thesis work on bottlenose dolphins I will be measuring contaminant levels of different toxins in blubber.  Unfortunately, this research is costly and time-consuming. Many studies regarding the effects of toxins on marine mammals are funded through the US government, and this is where the public can have a voice in scientific research.

Rachel Carson examines a specimen from a stream collection site in the 1950s. (Image Source: Alfred Eisenstaedt/ The LIFE picture collection/ Getty Images.)

Prior to the 1960s, there were no laws regarding the discharge of toxic substances into our environment. When Rachel Carson published “Silent Spring” and catalogued the effects of pesticides on birds, the American public began to understand the importance of environmental regulation. Once World War II was over and people did not worry about imminent death due to wartime activities, a large portion of American society focused on what they were seeing in their towns: discharges from chemical plants, effluents from paper mills, taconite mines in the Great Lakes, and many more.

Discharge from a metallic sulfide mine collects in streams in northern Wisconsin. (Image Source: Sierra Club)

However, it was a very different book regarding pollutants in the environment that caught my attention – and that of a different generation and part of society – even more than “Silent Spring”. A book called “The Lorax”.  In this 1972 children’s illustrated book by Dr. Seuss, a character called the Lorax “speaks for the trees”. The Lorax touches upon critical environmental issues such as water pollution, air pollution, terrestrial contamination, habitat loss, and ends with the poignant message, “Unless someone like you cared a whole awful lot, nothing is going to get better. It’s not.”

The original book cover for “The Lorax” by Dr. Seuss. (Image source: Amazon.com)

Within a decade, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was formed and multiple acts of congress were put in place, such as the National Environmental Policy Act, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act, with a mission to “protect human health and the environment.” The public had successfully prioritized protecting the environment and the government responded. Before this, rivers would catch fire from oil slicks, children would be banned from entering the water in fear of death, and fish would die by the thousands. The resulting legislation cleaned up our air, rivers, and lakes so that people could swim, fish, and live without fear of toxic substance exposures.

The Cuyahoga River on fire in June 1969 after oil slicked debris ignited. (Image Source: Ohio Central History).

Fast forward to 2018 and times have changed yet again due to fear. According to a Pew Research poll, terrorism is the number one issue that US citizens prioritize, and Congress and the President should address. The environment was listed as the seventh highest priority, below Medicare (“Majorities Favor Increased Spending for Education, Veterans, Infrastructure, Other Govt. Programs.”). With this societal shift in priorities, research on toxins in marine mammals may no longer grace the covers of the National Geographic, Science, or Nature, not for lack of importance, but because of the allocation of taxpayer funds and political agendas. Meanwhile, long-lived marine mammals will still be accumulating toxins in their blubber layers and we, the people, will need to care a whole lot, to save the animals, the plants, and ultimately, our planet.

The Lorax telling the reader how to save the planet. (Image Source: “The Lorax” by Dr. Seuss via the Plastic Bank)

Citations:

“Majorities Favor Increased Spending for Education, Veterans, Infrastructure, Other Govt. Programs.” Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, Pew Research Center, 11 Apr. 2019, www.people-press.org/2019/04/11/little-public-support-for-reductions-in-federal-spending/pp_2019-04-11_federal-spending_0-01-2/.

Marisa L. Trego, Eunha Hoh, Andrew Whitehead, Nicholas M. Kellar, Morgane Lauf, Dana O. Datuin, and Rebecca L. Lewison. Environmental Science & Technology 2019 53 (7), 3811-3822. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.8b06487

PhD life: Pushing it to the extreme, and its wonders

By Leila S. Lemos, PhD candidate in Wildlife Sciences, Fisheries and Wildlife Department

I already started my countdown: 57 days until my PhD defense date! Being so close to this date brings me a lot of excitement about sharing with the community the results of the project I’ve been working on the past 4.5 years, and that I am really proud of. It also brings me lots of excitement when thinking about the new things that will come in my next phase of life. But even though I am excited, I’ve also been stressed, anxious and under depression. There is a mix of feelings rushing inside of me right now.

For those who don’t know me, I am originally from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. I’ve been spending the last years far from my family, friends, language and culture. My favorite hobby always was to go to the beach and swim in the warm ocean. I would do that at least twice a week. Brazil is a tropical place and we can go to the beach all year round.

Me and my nephew in one of my favorite places in Brazil: Buzios, Rio de Janeiro.

Being in Oregon is really different. Oregon is gorgeous and I love it here, especially during the summer. However, the fall season brings the rain. Lots of rain, and it only stops around March. The absence of sun (and vitamin D) also contributes to depression. Even during the summer, I cannot swim in the ocean as the water is still really cold.

In addition to all of these factors, a PhD comes with classes, exams, fieldwork, research project, lots of reading and learning, manuscript writing, deadlines and great responsibilities. When you don’t have a scholarship or when it runs out (in my case), you also need to find a way to fund yourself until it finishes. Since last September I have been a teaching assistant for the university to cover my tuition and health insurance costs, and to earn a monthly stipend. The work never ends, and you always have more and more things to do.

Source: Costanza (2015).

A PhD is a full-time job, even if you are still technically a student. Actually, a PhD is a 24-hour job. Even if you are not working, you are thinking about your experiments and/or deadlines. Even if you are not awake, you are dreaming about it. You feel guilty all the time if you are doing things that are not related to your work.

But, it turns out I am not alone. The more I talk to people about the struggles, disappointments, anxiety, impostor syndrome, insomnia, depression, exhaustion of graduate school, the more I find that it is more common than I first thought.  I have several friends facing the same problems right now.

I searched for some stats on this topic and I found a relatively recent study (Levecque et al. 2017) that evaluated the mental health of a sample of PhD students (N = 3659) from five different research discipline categories: sciences, biomedical sciences, applied sciences, humanities, and social sciences. PhD students were compared to other three groups: (1) highly educated individuals in the general population (N = 769), (2) highly educated employees (N = 592), and (3) higher education students (i.e., academic Bachelor, Master or Doctoral degree; N = 333). Research participants answered the web-based questionnaire that follows:

Table 1: Prevalence of common mental health problems in PhD students compared to three comparison groups.

Legend: RR: risk ratio adjusted for age and gender; CI: 95% confidence interval; GHQ2+: experienced at least two symptoms; GHQ3+: experienced at least three symptoms; GHQ4+: experienced at least four symptoms.
Source: Levecque et al. (2017)

It was alarming to me to see some of these results. Here are some of them:

  • A GHQ2+ score indicated psychological distress, and the prevalence was about twice as high in PhD students compared to the highly educated general population. PhD students were consistently more affected when compared to all of the other groups.
  • They found a significant relationship between psychological distress and the risk of having or developing a common psychiatric disorder (GHQ4+).
  • The odds of experiencing at least two psychological symptoms were 34% higher for female PhD students than for males.
  • No differences between scientific disciplines were found.

And here’s the funny thing: My PhD project researches stress in gray whales along the Oregon coast. I have been evaluating gray whale overall health by using different tools like photogrammetry, endocrinology and acoustics to monitor these individual whales. The more I read about stress and all the physiological response that occurs within the bodies of all vertebrates, the more I imagine it happening to me and all of the possible consequences. However, I do not consider myself a specialist on the theme yet, so I leave my mental health to a specialist. I have been seeing a psychiatrist and a psychologist and I have been learning that work-life balance is crucial, and it helps us maintain sanity. I have also been learning some “exercises” to help me with anxiety and impostor syndrome. This topic may not be an easy to talk about, but it is extremely important. If you are reading this and identify yourself, contact a professional who can help you. It has helped me.

Institutions should also increase their efforts to systematically map and monitor stressors and its outcomes in PhD students (Levecque et al. 2017). Identifying the problems and working towards solutions will benefit the institutions as students will do a better job.

Right now, I am just trying my best to achieve a work-life balance while I am still getting things done on time. All of my data has been analyzed and now I just need to write my chapters and prepare my defense presentation! It is hard to believe that in only 57 days I will be done.  

Source: Reddit (2019).

I feel like I have succeeded in painting a grim picture of life as a PhD student. If you were thinking of going to grad school and now you have doubts about it, stop right there! Grad school is challenging, but it is not impossible. There are many things that will bring you joy in grad school like a successful fieldwork season, a successful experiment, a good grade on an exam you studied really hard for, a compliment from your advisor, a R code that is finally running correctly, or an accepted manuscript in a relevant journal.

By the way… I just had a manuscript of my first thesis chapter accepted for publication and I could not be happier:

Getting a PhD is hard, but it is also rewarding. Also, any path you take in your career will have pros and cons. What determines your success is your resilience and how you deal with the challenges that come. You may be asking if I would still do a PhD if I could go back in time, right? The answer is yes! Even though I have been facing many (personal) challenges I am really proud of my PhD project findings and am glad to be contributing to the knowledge and conservation of these amazing animals.

But please, if you see me around don’t forget:

Source: Costanza (2015).

References:

Costanza T. 2015. 10 memes relate to PhD students. Available at: https://www.siliconrepublic. com/careers/10-memes-relate-to-phd-students. Date of assess: 01/20/2020

Reddit. 2019. Made a meme for my boyfriend who’s doing his PhD. Available at: https://www.reddit.com/r/memes/comments/9fq2pq/made_a_meme_for_my_boyfriend_whos_doing_his_phd/. Date of assess: 01/20/2020

Levecque, K., F. Anseel, A. Beuckelaer, J. V. Heyden, and L. Gisle. 2017. Work organization and mental health problems in PhD students. Research Policy 46:868–879.

GEMM Lab 2019: A Year in the Life

By Lisa Hildebrand, MSc student, OSU Department of Fisheries & Wildlife, Geospatial Ecology of Marine Megafauna Lab

Another year has come and gone, and with the final days of 2019 upon us, it is fulfilling to look back and summarize all of the achievements in the GEMM Lab this year. So, snuggle up with your favorite holiday drink and enjoy our recap of 2019!

We wrapped up two intense but rewarding gray whale field seasons this summer. Our project investigating the health of Pacific Coast Feeding Group (PCFG) gray whales through fecal hormone and body condition sampling in the context of ocean noise went into its fourth year, while the Port Orford project where we track whales and prey at a very fine-scale celebrated its wood anniversary (five years!). The dedication and hard work of lots of people to help us collect our data meant that we were able to add a considerable amount of samples to our growing gray whale datasets. Our trusty red RHIB Ruby zipped around the Pacific and enabled us to collect 58 fecal samples, fly the drone 102 times, undertake 105 GoPro drops and record 141 gray whale sightings. Our Newport crew was a mix of full-time GEMMers (Leigh, Todd, Dawn, Leila, Clara, and myself) as well as part-time summer GEMMers (Ale, Sharon, and Cassy). Further south in Port Orford, my team of undergraduate and high school students and I had an interesting field season. We only encountered four different individuals (Buttons, Glacier, Smudge, and Primavera), however saw them repeatedly throughout the month of August, resulting in as many as 15 tracklines for one individual. Furthermore, we collected 249 GoPro drops and 248 zooplankton net samples.  

The GEMM Lab’s fieldwork was not just restricted to gray whales. After last year’s successes aboard the NOAA ship Bell M. Shimada, Alexa and Dawn both boarded the ship again this year as marine mammal observers for the May and September cruises, respectively. They spied humpback, blue, sperm, and fin whales, as well as many dolphins and seabirds, adding to the GEMM Lab’s growing database of megafauna distribution off the Oregon coast. 

After winning the prestigious L’Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science fellowship and the inaugural Louis Herman Scholarship, GEMM Lab grad Solène Derville lead her first research cruise aboard the French R/V Alis. She and her team conducted line transect surveys and micronekton/oceanographic sampling over several seamounts to try to solve the mystery of why humpbacks hang out there. We are also very excited to announce that Solène will be returning to the GEMM Lab as a post-doc in 2020! She will be creating distribution models of whales off the coast of Oregon with the data collected by Leigh during helicopter flights with the US Coast Guard. The primary aim of this work is to identify potential whale hotspots in an effort to avoid spatial overlap with fisheries gear and reduce entanglement risk.

Switching the focus from marine mammals to seabirds, Rachael has had an extremely busy year of field work all across the globe. She island-hopped from Midway (Hawaiian Northwest island) to the Falkland Islands in the first half of the year, and is currently overwintering on South Georgia, where she will be until end of February. Rachael is tracking albatross at all three locations by tagging individual birds to understand movements relative to fishing vessels and flight energetics. 

Besides several field efforts, the GEMM Lab was also busy disseminating our research and findings to various audiences. Our conferences kicked off in late February when Leigh and Rachael both flew to Kauai to present at the Pacific Seabird Group’s 46th Annual Meeting. In the spring, Leila, Dawn, Alexa, Dom, and myself drove to Seattle where the University of Washington hosted the Northwest Student Society of Marine Mammalogy chapter meeting and we all gave talks. Additionally, the Fisheries & Wildlife grad students in the lab also presented at the department’s annual Research Advances in Fisheries, Wildlife, and Ecology conference. Later in the year, Dom and I attended the State of the Coast conference where Dom was invited to participate in a panel about the holistic approaches to management in the nearshore while I presented a poster on preliminary findings of my Master’s thesis. Most recently, the entire GEMM Lab (bar Rachael) flew to Barcelona to present at the World Marine Mammal Conference (WMMC). 

Our science communication and outreach efforts were not just restricted to conferences though. Over the course of this year, the GEMM Lab supervised a total of 10 undergraduate and high school interns that assisted in a variety of ways (field and/or lab work, data analyses, independent projects) on a number of projects going on in the lab. Leigh and Dawn boarded the R/V Oceanus in the fall to co-lead a STEM research cruise aimed at providing high school students and teachers hands-on marine research. Dawn and I were guests on Inspiration Dissemination, a live radio show run by graduate students about graduate research going on at OSU. Our weekly blog, now in its fifth year, reached its highest viewership with a total of 14,814 views this year!

The GEMMers were once again prolific writers too! The 13 new publications in 10 scientific journals include contributions from Leigh (7), Rachael (6), Solène (2), Dawn (2), and Leila (1). Scroll down to the end of the post to see the list.

Academic milestones were also reached by several of us. Most notably and recently, Dom successfully defended his Master’s thesis this past week – congratulations Dom!! Unsurprisingly, he already has a job lined up starting in January as a Science Officer with the California Ocean Science Trust. Dom is the 6th GEMM Lab graduate, which after just five years of the GEMM Lab existing is a huge testament to Leigh as an advisor. Leila, who is in the 4th year of her PhD, anticipates finishing this coming March. We also had three successful research reviews – I met with my committee in late March to discuss my Master’s proposal, while Alexa and Dawn met with their committees in the summer to review their PhD proposals. All three reviews were fruitful and successful. And we want to highlight the success of a GEMM Lab grad, Florence Sullivan, who started a job in Maui with the Pacific Whale Foundation in September as a Research Analyst.

Leigh was recognized for her expertise in gray whale ecology and was appointed to the IUCN Western Gray Whale Advisory Panel (WGWAP). The western gray whales are a critically endangered population. At one point in the 1960s, the population was so scarce that they were believed to have been extinct. While this concern did not prove to be the case, the population still is not doing well, which is why the IUCN formed WGWAP to provide advice on the conservation of the western gray whales. Leigh was appointed to the panel this year and traveled to Switzerland and Russia for meetings. 

Clara aboard Ruby on her first day of gray whale field work in Oregon. Photo: Leigh Torres

We are excited about a new addition to the lab. Clara Bird started her MS in Wildlife Science in the Department of Fisheries & Wildlife this fall. She jumped straight into field work when she came in early September and got a taste of the Pacific. Clara joins us from the Duke University where she did her undergraduate degree and worked for the past year in their Marine Robotics and Remote Sensing Lab. Clara is digging into the gray whale drone footage collected over the last four field seasons and scrutinize them from a behavioral point of view. 

If you are reading this post, we would like to say that we really appreciate your support and interest in our work! We hope you will continue to join us on our journeys in 2020. Until then, happy holidays from the GEMM Lab!  

GEMM Lab at the beginning of June with some permanents GEMMs and some temporary summer GEMM helpers.

Barlow, D. R., M. Fournet, and F. Sharpe. 2019. Incorporating tides into the acoustic ecology of humpback whales. Marine Mammal Science 35:234-251.

Barlow, D. R., A. L. Pepper, and L. G. Torres. 2019. Skin deep: an assessment of New Zealand blue whale skin condition. Frontiers in Marine Science doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00757.

Baylis, A. M. M., R. A. Orben, A. A. Arkhipkin, J. Barton, R. L. Brownell Jr., I. J. Staniland, and P. Brickle. 2019. Re-evaluating the population size of South American fur seals and conservation implications. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 29(11):1988-1995.

Baylis, A. M. M., M. Tierney, R. A. Orben, et al. 2019. Important at-sea areas of colonial breeding marine predators on the southern Patagonian Shelf. Scientific Reports 9:8517. 

Cockerham, S., B. Lee, R. A. Orben, R. M. Suryan, L. G. Torres, P. Warzybok, R. Bradley, J. Jahncke, H. S. Young, C. Ouverney, and S. A. Shaffer. 2019. Microbial biology of the western gull (Larus occidentalis). Microbial Ecology 78:665-676.

Derville, S., L. G. Torres, R. Albertson, O. Andrews, C. S. Baker, P. Carzon, R. Constantine, M. Donoghue, C. Dutheil, A. Gannier, M. Oremus, M. M. Poole, J. Robbins, and C. Garrigue. 2019. Whales in warming water: assessing breeding habitat diversity and adaptability in Oceania’s changing climate. Global Change Biology 25(4):1466-1481.

Derville, S., L. G. Torres, R. Dodémont, V. Perard, and C. Garrigue. 2019. From land and sea, long-term data reveal persistent humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) breeding habitat in New Caledonia. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 29(10):1697-1711.

Fleischman, A. B., R. A. Orben, N. Kokubun, A. Will, R. Paredes, J. T. Ackerman, A. Takahashi, A. S. Kitaysky, and S. A. Shaffer. 2019. Wintering in the western Subantarctic Pacific increases mercury contamination of red-legged kittiwakes. Environmental Science & Technology 53(22):13398-13407.

Holdman, A. K., J. H. Haxel, H. Klinck, and L. G. Torres. 2019. Acoustic monitoring reveals the times and tides of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) distribution off central Oregon, U.S.A. Marine Mammal Science 35:164-186.

Kroeger, C., D. E. Crocker, D. R. Thompson, L. G. Torres, P. Sagar, and S. A. Shaffer. 2019. Variation in corticosterone levels in two species of breeding albatrosses with divergent life histories: responses to body condition and drivers of foraging behavior. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 92(2):223:238.

Loredo, S. A., R. A. Orben, R. M. Suryan, D. E. Lyons, J. Adams, and S. W. Stephensen. 2019. Spatial and temporal diving behavior of non-breeding common murres during two summers of contrasting ocean conditions. Journal of Experimental Biology and Ecology 517:13-24.

Monteiro, F., L. S. Lemos, J. Fulgêncio de Moura, R. C. C. Rocha, I. Moreira, A. P. Di Beneditto, H. A. Kehrig, I. C. A. C. Bordon, S. Siciliano, T. D. Saint’Pierre, and R. A. Hauser-Davis. 2019. Subcellular metal distributions and metallothionein associations in rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis) from southeastern Brazil. Marine Pollution Bulletin 146:263-273.

Orben, R. A., A. B. Fleischman, A. L. Borker, W. Bridgeland, A. J. Gladics, J. Porquez, P. Sanzenbacher, S. W. Stephensen, R. Swift, M. W. McKown, and R. M. Suryan. 2019. Comparing imaging, acoustics, and radar to monitor Leach’s storm-petrel colonies. PeerJ 7:e6721.

Yates, K. L., …, L. G. Torres, et al. 2019. Outstanding challenges in the transferability of ecological models. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 33(10):790-802.

Flying halfway around the world to learn about marine mammals from around the world!

By Lisa Hildebrand, MSc student, OSU Department of Fisheries & Wildlife, Geospatial Ecology of Marine Megafauna Lab

The GEMM Lab is back from Barcelona after attending the World Marine Mammal Conference last week and it sure was a week to remember! Not only did every GEMM member present some aspect of their research at the conference (either as a poster, speed or full-length talk) but some of us also attended workshops, scheduled meetings with collaborators, new & old, and we certainly all learned a lot of new information about what is going on in marine mammalogy across the globe. Having had a few days now to reflect upon the intense four days spent at the conference, we want to highlight the talks that we each personally thought were some of the most interesting and exciting.

“Double Drone Drama” was the alliterative title of Héloïse Frouin-Mouy‘s talk about using two drones to collect simultaneous visual and underwater acoustic behavioral data of gray whales in Baja California, Mexico. While there were many talks during the week that discussed incorporating drones, also known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), into marine mammal research, this project was potentially the only one that discussed using two simultaneously. One drone collected visual aerial observations while the other obtained close-range passive acoustic measurements with an underwater recording hydrophone to better understand the behavioral contexts of call generation. Froiun-Mouy and her team detected call-type-specific source levels relative to behavior state through this dual-approach. For example, they were able to estimate the acoustic source levels of bubble-blasts produced by gray whales, and the double drone action recorded a variety of calls. Using two or more UAVs can provide a more integrated snapshot into the animal vocalization context, and it will be interesting to see whether this method is applied elsewhere on a variety of whale species.

Source: Twitter
Tara Sayuri Whitty. Source: UCSD Aquarium.

Tara Sayuri Whitty discussed her doctoral research focused on understanding the mental models of local, artisanal fishing communities at the heart of the vaquita conservation efforts. The vaquita has experienced rapid population declines due primarily to bycatch in gillnet fisheries from legal local gillnet fisheries and the illegal totoaba fishery. With the sole intent of preventing bycatch, gillnets were banned for legal practice, but the illegal totoaba fishery continued, as did vaquita bycatch. Whitty conducted interviews to understand the mental models and perceptions of local fishing communities towards officials and conservationists regarding the gillnet band. She discovered that these conservation efforts have not only failed to prevent vaquita bycatch, but they have now pitted conservationists against local communities because an important aspect of their livelihoods is now banned. This misstep and lack of trust with the community now threatens future conservation and recovery progress for the vaquita and highlights the need to collaborate and engage with local communities early and often when such efforts are so closely tied to human well-being.

Pauline Goulet. Source: Soundtags.

Pauline Goulet, a PhD student in the Sea Mammal Research Unit at the University of St. Andrews, presented findings obtained from a novel sonar tag deployed on southern elephant seals (SES) in the Kerguelen Islands and Peninsula Valdes. Gaining insight into predator-prey interactions is critical to understanding the ecology of marine mammals as they live in dynamic and vast environments where prey is patchy. Collecting in-situ prey information is difficult, and in some cases impossible, due to the remote locations where marine mammals forage and it is not being feasible to follow individuals around continuously to collect prey samples at every foraging event. In an attempt to overcome this universal challenge to marine mammal research, Goulet and her collaborators decided to mimic the experts in prey detection and visualization from a distance in the marine environment – echolocating odontocetes. By equipping conventional DTAGs with a 1.5 MHz single beam sonar with a 6 m detection range, Goulet was able to identify whether SES were pursuing individual fish or large schools of fish. Additionally, by also analyzing the accelerometer data, she could document whether prey capture attempts were successful or not, and link these results to the body condition of individual SES (inferred from the horizontal distance an individual traveled during drift dives, whereby a longer horizontal distance in the same period of time suggested that the individual had gained weight and was now heavier). It was ingenious to see researchers utilize a biological trait that evolved millions of years ago in certain marine mammal predators to better understand the ecology of another marine mammal predator.

A trio of talks given by Kristi Fazioli, Valeria Paz, and Shauna McBride-Kebert, in the ‘Habitat and Distribution II’ session, discussed responses of coastal bottlenose dolphins to hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Besides continuing to be an area of interest in conservation after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the GoM frequently experiences hurricanes and other strong storm systems that cause extensive flooding events annually. Hence, dolphins along the GoM coast experience a large outflow of freshwater after severe precipitation, leading to low salinity events. Both Fazioli and Paz hypothesized that these changes in environmental conditions can create health problems to the dolphins.

Bottlenose dolphin underwater in the Gulf of Mexico. Source: Mike Heithaus.

Fazioli investigated encounter rates and skin conditions of bottlenose dolphins after Hurricane Harvey. She found that, in 2017, the encounter rates in her study area decreased, while skin lesions increased (Christina Toms, unpublished work, expected Spring 2020). Skin lesions are known to occur at higher rates after exposure to freshwater and even though they persist for some time, they eventually do heal. After less than two years, preliminary data suggest that these dolphins have returned to their original distributions in the study area. Paz’s study in Shark Bay Estuary examined different environmental drivers of dolphin distribution following Hurricane Irma. She found that dissolved oxygen, salinity, and temperature were the primary dynamic, environmental drivers of distribution following a major hurricane. Lastly, McBride’s species distribution models of bottlenose dolphins in response to severe flooding concluded that depth, slope, latitude, longitude, season, and dissolved oxygen all contributed in different percentages to distribution.

Marta Guerra. Source: RBR.

Marta Guerra presented findings from her PhD research at the University of Otago in New Zealand on the ecology and distribution of sperm whales in New Zealand. Kaikoura canyon is a region utilized by sperm whales for foraging, and Marta’s research highlighted marked differences in their distribution between the summer and winter, likely reflective of the sperm whales switching their target prey items seasonally. In the middle of their data collection period, a very intense earthquake struck the region in 2016, causing a canyon-flushing event that altered the canyon ecosystem. The sperm whales responded to this extreme event by altering their distribution away from the areas most affected by the earthquake, demonstrating that these marine predators respond to environmental shifts in the ecosystem they depend on at multiple scales. 

David Wiley. Source: NOAA.

On the final day of the conference, David Wiley gave a talk entitled “First documentation of coordinated bottom-feeding by humpback whales”. Using footage from tags containing a suite of sensors and video cameras, Wiley and colleagues observed humpback whales feeding on sand lace in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Sand lace are a species of fish that frequently burrow in the sand in an attempt to avoid capture by predators looking for their next meal. Humpback whales in the area have been observed with lacerations and scars along their mouths, originally leading to the hypothesis that whales were bottom-feeding. However, it was never known whether whales compete or cooperate when exploiting this resource and what the actual mechanics of this feeding behavior look like. The tag data revealed that groups of 3-4 individuals work together to approach the seafloor in a star-shape formation and when they get close enough, the sand lace emerge from the sand (probably an escape response to the approaching vibrations created by large whales) only to be engulfed by the humpbacks who are poised directly above them with wide-open mouths. Not only did the video footage reveal that individuals are so close together that their rostrums are almost touching, but Wiley and team were able to determine that whales perform their behavior usually within the same group of 3-4 individuals and that the orientation of each individual within the star-formation remains the same almost every time. This talk was so enjoyable because it was a reminder of how little we still know about marine mammals and provided a moment of audible awe and surprise throughout the room.

Measuring dolphin response to Navy sonar

By Lisa Hildebrand, MSc student, OSU Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Geospatial Ecology of Marine Megafauna Lab

During the summer of 2017 I was an intern for Cascadia Research Collective (CRC), a non-profit organization based out of Olympia, Washington, that conducts research on marine mammal behavior, ecology, and population status along the western US coast and around Hawaii. My internship was primarily office-based and involved processing photographs of humpback and blue whales along the US west coast to add to CRC’s long-term photo-identification catalogues. However, I was asked to join a research project investigating the behavioral and physiological responses of four dolphin species in southern California (Fig. 1). The research project is a collaborative effort lead by Dr. Brandon Southall and involves researchers from CRC, Kelp Marine Research, NOAA’s Southwest Fisheries Science Center, and SR3. Since my internship with CRC, there have been three pilot efforts and one full field effort of this project, called the SOCAL Tagless Behavioral and Physiological Response Study (BPRS), and I have been a part of all of them.

The marine environment is stressed out, and so are the millions of flora and fauna that inhabit the global ocean. Humans are a big contributor to this stress. During the last few decades, we have produced more and more things that have ended up in the ocean, whether by choice or by chance. Plastic pollution has become a pervasive and persistent problem, especially after the discovery that when large plastic items are exposed to UV light and seawater they break down into smaller pieces, termed micro- and nano-plastics (Jambeck et al. 2015). Increased demand for oil and gas to supply a growing human population has led to much more marine oil and gas exploration and exploitation (World Ocean Review 2013). Since 1985, global container shipping has increased by approximately 10% annually (World Ocean Review 2010) and it is estimated that global freight demand will triple by 2050 (International Transport Forum 2019). The list of impacts is long. Our impact on the earth, of which the ocean makes up 71%, has been so extreme that expert groups suggest that a new geological epoch – the Anthropocene – needs to be declared to define the time that we now find ourselves in and the impact humanity is having on the environment (Lewis and Maslin 2015). While this term has not been officially recognized, it is irrefutable that humans have and continue to alter ecosystems, impacting the organisms within them. 

Noise is an impact often overlooked when thinking about anthropogenic effects in the marine environment, likely because we as humans do not hear much of what happens beneath the ocean surface. However, ocean noise is of particular concern for cetaceans as sound is their primary sense, both over long and short distances. Sound travels extremely efficiently underwater and therefore anthropogenic sounds can be propagated for thousands of kilometers or more (Weilgart 2007a). While it is widely agreed upon that anthropogenic noise is likely a significant stressor to cetaceans (Weilgart 2007b; Wright et al. 2007; Tyack 2008), very few studies have quantified their responses to noise to date. This knowledge gap is likely because behavioral and physiological responses to sound can be subtle, short-lived or slowly proliferate over time, hence making them hard to study. However, growing concern over this issue has resulted in more research into impacts of noise on marine mammals, including the GEMM Lab’s impacts of ocean noise on gray whales project.

The most extreme impact of sound exposure on marine mammals is death. Mass strandings of a few cetacean species have coincided in time and space with Navy sonar operations (Jepson et al. 2003; Fernández et al. 2005; Filadelfo et al. 2009). While fatal mass strandings of cetaceans are extremely troubling, they are a relatively rare occurrence. A cause for perhaps greater concern are sub-lethal changes in important behaviors such as feeding, social interactions, and avoidance of key habitat as a result of exposure to Navy sonar. All of these potential outcomes have raised interest within the U.S. Navy to better understand the responses of cetaceans to sonar. 

The SOCAL Tagless BPRS is just one of several studies that has been funded by the U.S. Office of Naval Research to improve our understanding of Navy sonar impact on cetaceans, in particular the sub-lethal effects described earlier. It builds upon knowledge and expertise gained from previous behavioral response studies led by Dr. Southall on a variety of marine mammal species, including beaked whales, baleen whales, and sperm whales. Those efforts included deploying tags on individual whales to obtain high-resolution movement and passive acoustic data paired with controlled exposure experiments (CEEs) during which simulated Navy mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) or real Navy sonar were employed. Results from that multi-year effort have shown that for blue whales, responses generally only lasted for as long as the sound was active and highly dependent on exposure context such as behavioral state, prey availability and the horizontal distance between the sound source and the individual whale. Blue whales identified as feeding in shallow depths showed no changes in behavior, however over 50% of deep-feeding whales responded during CEEs (Southall et al. 2019).

The SOCAL Tagless BPRS, as the name implies, does not involve deploying tags on the animals. Tags were omitted from this study design because tags on dolphins have not had high success rates of staying on for a very long time. Furthermore, dolphins are social species that typically occur in groups and individuals within a group are likely to interact or react together when exposed to an external stimuli. Therefore, the project integrates established methods of quantifying dolphin behavior and physiology in a novel way to measure broad and fine-scale group and individual changes of dolphin behavior and physiology to simulated Navy MFAS or real Navy sonars using CEEs. 

During these tagless CEEs, a dolphin group is tracked from multiple platforms using several different tools. Kelp Marine Research is our on-shore team that spots workable groups (workable meaning that a group should be within range of all platforms and not moving too quickly so that they will leave this range during the CEE), tracks the group using a theodolite (just like I do for my Port Orford gray whale project), and does focal follows to record behavior of the group over a period of time. Ziphiid, one of CRC’s RHIBs, is tasked with deploying three passive acoustic sensors to record sounds emitted by the dolphins and to measure the intensity of the sound of the simulated Navy MFAS or the real Navy sonars. Musculus, the second CRC RHIB, has a dual-function during CEEs; it holds the custom vertical line array sound source, which emits the simulated Navy MFAS, and it is also the ‘biopsy boat’ tasked with obtaining biopsy samples of individuals within the dolphin group to measure potential changes in stress hormone levels. And last but not least, the Magician, the third vessel on the water, serves as ‘home-base’ for the project (Fig. 3). Quite literally it is where the research team eats and sleeps, but it is also the spotting vessel from which visual observations occur, and it is the launch pad for the unmanned aerial system (UAS) used to measure potential changes in group composure, spacing, and speed of travel.

The project involves a lot of moving parts and we are careful to conduct the research with explicit monitoring and mitigation requirements to ensure our work is carried out safely and ethically. These factors, as well as the fact that we are working with live, wild animals that we cannot ‘control’, are why three pilot efforts were necessary. Our first ‘official’ phase this past October was a success: in just eight days we conducted 11 CEEs. Six of these involved experimental sonar transmissions (two being from real Navy sonars dipped from hovering helicopters) and five were no-sonar controls that are critical to be able to experimentally associate sonar exposure with potential response. There are more phases to come in 2020 and 2021 and I look forward to continue working on such a collaborative project.

For more information on the project, you can visit Southall Environmental Associates project page, or read the blog posts written by Dr. Brandon Southall (this one or this one).

For anyone attending the World Marine Mammal Conference in Barcelona, Spain, there will be several talks related to this research:

  • Dr. Brandon Southall will be presenting on the Atlantic BRS on beaked whales and short-finned pilot whales on Wednesday, December 11 from 2:15 – 2:30 pm
  • Dr. Caroline Casey will be presenting on the experimental design and results of this SOCAL Tagless BPRS project on Wednesday, December 11 from 2:30 – 2:45 pm

All research is authorized under NMFS permits #16111, 19091, and 19116 as well as numerous Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and other federal, state, and local authorizations. More information is available upon request from the project chief scientist at Brandon.Southall@sea-inc.net

Literature cited

Fernández, A., J. F. Edwards, F. Rodríguez, A. Espinosa de los Monteros, P. Herráez, P. Castro, J. R. Jaber, V. Martín, and M. Arbelo. 2005. “Gas and fat embolic syndrome” involving a mass stranding of beaked whales (Family Ziphiidae) exposed to anthropogenic sonar signals. Veterinary Pathology 42(4):446-457.

Filadelfo, R., J. Mintz, E. Michlovich, A. D’Amico, P. L. Tyack, and D. R. Ketten. 2009. Correlating military sonar use with beaked whale mass strandings: what do the historical data show? Aquatic Mammals 35(4):435-444.

International Transport Forum. 2019. Transport demand set to triple, but sector faces potential disruptions. Retrieved from: https://www.itf-oecd.org/transport-demand-set-triple-sector-faces-potential-disruptions

Jambeck, J. R., R. Geyer, C. Wilcox, T. R. Siegler, M. Perryman, A. Andrady, R. Narayan, and K. L. Law. 2015. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. Science 347(6223):768-771.

Jepson, P. D., M. Arbelo, R. Deaville, I A. P. Patterson, P. Castro, J. R. Baker, E. Degollada, H. M. Ross, P. Herráez, A. M. Pocknell, F. Rodríguez, F. E. Howie II, A. Espinosa, R. J. Reid, J. R. Jaber, V. Martin, A. A. Cunningham, and A. Fernández. 2003. Gas-bubble lesions in stranded cetaceans. Nature 425:575.

Lewis, S. L., and M. A. Maslin. 2015. Defining the Anthropocene. Nature 519:171-180.

Southall, B. L., S. L. DeRuiter, A. Friedlaender, A. K. Stimpert, J. A. Goldbogen, E. Hazen, C. Casey, S. Fregosi, D. E. Cade, A. N. Allen, C. M. Harris, G. Schorr, D. Moretti, S. Guan, and J. Calambokidis. 2019. Behavioral responses of individual blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) to mid-frequency military sonar. Journal of Experimental Biology 222: doi. 10.1242/jeb.190637.

Tyack, P. L. 2008. Implications for marine mammals of large-scale changes in the marine acoustic environment. Journal of Mammalogy 89(3):549-558.

Weilgart, L. S. 2007a. The impacts of anthropogenic ocean noise on cetaceans and implications for management. Canadian Journal of Zoology 85(11):1091-1116.

Weilgart, L. S. 2007b. A brief review of known effects of noise on marine mammals. International Journal of Comparative Psychology 20(2):159-168.

World Ocean Review. 2014. WOR 3: Marine resources – opportunities and risks. Report No 3. Retrieved from: https://worldoceanreview.com/en/wor-3/oil-and-gas/.

World Ocean Review. 2010. WOR 1: Marine resources – Living with the oceans. A report on the state of the world’s oceans. Report No 1. Retrieved from: https://worldoceanreview.com/en/wor-1/transport/global-shipping/3/

Wright, A. J., N. A. Soto, A. L. Baldwin, M. Bateson, C. M. Beale, C. Clark, T. Deak, E. F. Edwards, A. Fernández, A. Godinho, L. T. Hatch, A. Kakuschke, D. Lusseau, D. Martineau, M. L. Romero, L. S. Weilgart, B. A. Wintle, G. Notarbartolo-di-Sciara, and V. Martin. Do marine mammals experience stress related to anthropogenic noise? International Journal of Comparative Psychology 20(2):274-316.

Vaquita: a porpoise caught between people and money

By: Alexa Kownacki, Ph.D. Student, OSU Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Geospatial Ecology of Marine Megafauna Lab

When I first learned of the critically endangered vaquita in early 2015, there were an estimated 97 individuals remaining as reported by CIRVA* (Morell 2014). I was a recent graduate with a bachelor’s degree in Wildlife, Fish, and Conservation Biology, and I, of all people, had never heard of the vaquita. Today, there are an estimated 19 vaquita left (Roth 2019).

Digital painting of a vaquita mother with her calf (Image Source: Aquarium of the Pacific).

The vaquita (Phocoena sinus) is a small porpoise endemic to the Sea of Cortez in the northern region of the Gulf of California, Mexico. It is the most endangered marine mammal and has been for many years, and yet, I had not heard of the vaquita. It wasn’t until I listened to a lunchtime seminar hosted by NOAA Fisheries, that I heard about the porpoise. As a young scientist, “in the field”, I was shocked to realize that I was just learning about an animal, let alone a cetacean, actively going extinct in my lifetime. I believe it’s our job to inform those around us of news in our expertise, and I had failed. I wasn’t informed. As much as I tried in the past four years to describe the decline of the smallest cetacean to anyone who’d listen, I was only reaching a few people at a time. But, today, the vaquita is finally capturing the public’s eye thanks to celebrity support and a feature-length film.

A rare photo of a vaquita (Image Source: Tom Jefferson via the Marine Mammal Center)

From executive producer, Leonardo DiCaprio, comes the Sundance Film Festival Audience Award winner, “Sea of Shadows”. The story of the vaquita truly is an “eco-thriller” and one worth watching. This is not your typical plot line of an endangered species tragically going extinct without action. The vaquita’s story boasts big-name players, such as the Mexican Navy, internationally recognized scientists, Mexican cartels, Chinese mafia, celebrities, the National Marine Mammal Foundation, and Sea Shepherd. At the center of this documentary is the elusive vaquita. The vaquita is not hunted, in fact, this species is not desirable for fisherman. The animal is not aggressive and, in contrast, is notoriously shy, only surfacing to breathe. Furthermore, its name roughly translates into “little cow” because of the rings around its eyes and its docile nature. So, why is this cute creature on the road to extinction? The answer: the wrong place at the wrong time.

“Sea of Shadows” official trailer by National Geographic

The vaquita occupy a small part of the Sea of Cortez where totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi), a large fish in the drum family, is also endemic. If you’re wondering what a small porpoise and a large fish have in common, then you’d be close to recognizing that is the key to understanding this tragedy. Both species are roughly the same size, one to two meters in length with similar girths. The totoaba, although said to have tender meat, is caught for only one organ: the swim bladder. Now referred to as the “cocaine of the sea”, the dried swim bladders of the totoaba are sold to Mexican cartels who then export the product to China. Once in China, illegal markets sell the swim bladders for up to $100,000USD. Unfortunately, the nets used to illegally catch totoaba, also catch the vaquita. The porpoise has no economic value to the fishermen and therefore are tossed as bycatch. The vaquita is the innocent bystander in a war for money and power.

A man displays the catch from an illegal gillnet, including the totoaba in his arms, and a vaquita, below, that was bycatch (Image Source: Omar Vidal via Aquarium of the Pacific/NOAA Fisheries).

Watching a charismatic species severely decline because of human greed is horrific. The film, however, focuses on the effort of a few incredible organizations that band together in the fight to save the vaquita. Moreover, the multimillion-dollar project, Vaquita CPR, is still ongoing. On a more positive note, in October of 2019, scientists spotted six vaquita during continued conservation and monitoring efforts (Blust & Desk 2019). The path to saving a critically endangered species, especially one that is thought not to do well in captivity, is challenging. The vaquita’s recovery path has many complicated connections which for what appears to be an uphill battle. But, we, the people, are responsible for this. We must support research and conservation by using our voice to share what is happening, for a porpoise and for the world.

*Comité Internacional para la Recuperación de la Vaquita (International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita)

Citations:

Blust, Kendal, and Fronteras Desk. “Photo Sparks Increased Concern over Fishing in Vaquita Refuge.” Arizona Public Media, 25 Oct. 2019, https://news.azpm.org/p/news-topical-nature/2019/10/25/160806-photo-sparks-increased-concern-over-fishing-in-vaquita-refuge/.

Morell, Virginia. “Vaquita Porpoise Faces Imminent Extinction-Can It Be Saved?” National Geographic, 15 Aug. 2014, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/8/140813-vaquita-gulf-california-mexico-totoaba-gillnetting-china-baiji/.

Roth, Annie. “The ‘Little Cow’ of the Sea Nears Extinction.” National Geographic, 17 Sept. 2019, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2019/09/vaquita-the-porpoise-familys-smallest-member-nears-extinction/#close.