The Mining Bee

This entry is from Isabella Messer, an undergraduate horticulture student at Oregon State University. It highlights a common Oregon pollinator.

Halictus ligatus covered in pollen from the Morris Arboretum.

Halictus ligatus(Say, 1837), otherwise known as the Mining Bee and which can be classified as a Sweat Bee, are charming little(7-10mm) pollinators who are essential to our success as gardeners and farmers. These little generalists can be found worldwide in temperate climates with over 330 species recorded, so it would be no surprise if also you see them in your garden(1).

Halictus as a genus is very diverse in appearance with colors ranging from metallic greens, blues and sometimes even purple(2). Mining bees on the other hand, can be identified by their small dark brown or black bodies with well-defined yellow or black bands around their abdomens(3). Many of the females but no males will have scopa, which are long dense hairs on their hind tibia for carrying pollen(2). While they may not be the most flamboyant in their genera, their bodies are metallic and sparkle in the sun, giving them an understated but undeniable charm.

H. ligatus on an unidentified flower.

As their name suggests, Mining Bees build their nests underground and the Halictus gendera can demonstrate a very diverse gradation of social organizations within their nests(4). These organizations can range from solitary, communal, semi-social or eusocial(4).

If you are looking to attract some of these lovely and helpful pollinators to your gardens, be sure to leave a sunny and loose patch of soil close to some of your flowers available. Seeing as Mining Bees are broad generalists, there is no need to plant specific flowers or herbs to attract them. They will be beneficial for all of your flowering plants.

 

Sources

  1. Buckley, K., Nalen, C. Z., & Ellis, J. (2011, August). Featured Creatures: Sweat or Halictid Bees. Retrieved April 30, 2018, from http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/misc/bees/halictid_bees.htm
  2. Elliot, L. (2005, April 8). Species Halictus ligatus – Ligated Furrow Bee, Halictus (Odontalictus) ligatus. Retrieved April 30, 2018, from https://bugguide.net/node/view/14566
  3. Potts, S., & Willmer, P. (1997). Abiotic and biotic factors influencing nest-site selection by Halictus rubicundus, a ground-nesting halictine bee. Ecological Entomology,22(3), 319-328. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2311.1997.00071.x
  4. Rehan, S. M., Rotella, A., Onuferko, T. M., & Richards, M. H. (2013). Colony disturbance and solitary nest initiation by workers in the obligately eusocial sweat bee, Halictus ligatus. Insectes Sociaux,60(3), 389-392. doi:10.1007/s00040-013-0304-8