PALE SOFT EXUDATIVE and DARK HARD DRY and the effects of stress

Purdue Animal Sciences

University of Guelph

Purdue University Animal Sciences Department – Meat Quality and Safety.

Guidelines for Humane Handling, Transport and Slaughter of Livestock
FAO and the Humane Society International

Can pale, soft, exudative pork be prevented by postmortem sodium bicarbonate injection? R. G. Kauffman, R. L. van Laack, R. L. Russell, E. Pospiech, C. A. Cornelius, C. E. Suckow and M. L. Greaser. Journal of Animal Science, Vol 76, Issue 12 3010-3015 1998



Meat Science By P. D. Warriss P 100-104 available in the online preview


A detailed guide to SAFE sous vide cooking here from Douglas Baldwin at the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Colorado – Boulder.

Martin Lersch of Khymos interviewed Douglas… link



TGase was thought to be a way of decreasing allergenicity in foods but this 2005 article about the generation of the T-cell reactive epitope “Addition of transglutaminase to cereal products may generate the epitope responsible for coeliac disease” by Juliette Gerrard and my colleague Kevin Sutton both at the New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research questions this for the specific case of celiac disease [Trends in Food Science & Technology 16 (2005) 510–512].  Here is the abstract –

Transglutaminase is a crosslinking enzyme that is being used more extensively in foods and has been widely accepted as a processing aid. We, and others, have reported the use of transglutaminase in the baking industry to improve the functional properties of bread, pastry and croissant dough. Early work suggested that transglutaminase may reduce the allergenicity of wheat flour. However, recent research into the molecular mechanism of coeliac disease suggests the disturbing possibility that transglutaminase in baked products may act upon gliadin proteins in dough to generate the epitope associated with the coeliac response. Further work is urgently required to assess this possibility. In the meantime, we do not recommend the use of transglutaminase in baked products“.

Human tisse TGase is implicated in the celiac disease process “Transglutaminase 2 in celiac disease: Minireview article Authors: Caputo, I.; D’Amato, A.; Troncone, R.; Auricchio, S.; Esposito, C. Amino Acids, Volume 26, Number 4, July 2004 , pp. 381-386(6)

And this study from 2008 reiterated the conclusions of Gerrard and Sutton…

Dekking et al. Microbial transglutaminases generate T cell stimulatory epitopes involved in celiac disease Journal of Cereal Science 47 (2008) 339–346

Others have been trying to see if TGases can also reduce the reactivity of gluten but I’ve lost the locations of the papers.

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