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Annotated Bibliography

Posted by: | November 5, 2018 | No Comment |

Nye, Ja, Js Link, Ja Hare, and Wj Overholtz. “Changing Spatial Distribution of Fish Stocks in Relation to Climate and Population Size on the Northeast United States Continental Shelf.” Marine Ecology Progress Series 393 (October 30, 2009): 111–29. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps08220.

This study focuses on the east coast and it’s important fisheries. With a changing climate, species distributions will change. The purpose is to quantify the relationship between fish stock distribution and the effects of changes in water temperature. They use trawl survey data for 36 fish stocks that were obtained from the Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC). In order to determine this, a variety of methods were used which were mostly statistical. ArcGIS software was used to create smoothed maps for some of the species. The method used was inverse distance weighting (IDW) and raster size and smoothing power stayed consistent. Results show that 24 out of the 36 stocks had significant changes in distribution such as a shift in biomass center and an increase in depth. This shows one of many cases of climate change effects on marine species.


Booth, Anthony. Spatial Analysis of Fish Distribution and Abundance Patterns: A GIS Approach.1998. Alaska Sea Grant College Program. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267964449_Spatial_Analysis_of_Fish_Distribution_and_Abundance_Patterns_A_GIS_Approach.

The use of GIS methodologies in fisheries management is more commonly recognized now. This publication uses one example to demonstrate the power and usefulness of GIS in understanding fish distribution, habitat, and behavior. The Panga Pterogymnus Laniarius, which is a very important fish off South Africa, was the focus of the analysis. Biomass survey data was collected between Cape Agulhas and Port Alfred between 1988 and 1995. AcView was used alongside S-PLUS for the statistical analysis. The statistical summaries were exported back into ArcView for further manipulation and graphical representation. Digitization of nautical maps were also done to get bathymetry and coastline data. Some specific analysis used were polynomial interpolation and Boolean logic. GIS facilitated the understanding that there was a nursery for immature fish on the central Agulhas Bank and that once matured, they distributed towards the eastern edges. The authors urge future management to use GIS to make better decisions, emphasizing that it not only help visualize, but that it stores the data as well. This is useful because it shows how GIS can be useful for uncertain fisheries management decisions, which will be extremely necessary in the upcoming years due to climate change.


Keleher, Christopher J., and Frank J. Rahel. “Thermal Limits to Salmonid Distributions in the Rocky Mountain Region and Potential Habitat Loss Due to Global Warming: A Geographic Information System (GIS) Approach.” Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 125, no. 1 (1996): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1996)125<0001:TLTSDI>2.3.CO;2.

This article uses a GIS approach to understand how global warming will affect Salmonid distributions and locations in the Wyoming. Although this specific study focuses on landlocked streams farther inland, and my research focuses on the coastal ocean, there are still good tips to be gained from the approach. The main method used was through an ARC/INFO-based geographic information system. It allowed storage and testing of the main hypothesis that warming would affect the species distribution. The first step was that they created a coverage map of mean July air temperature using ARC/INFO. Data was obtained from the USGS elevation maps. This was combined with latitude grids and temperature that were then converted into contours. Essentially, locations/elevations that had ideal air temperature for the Salmon were then displayed on a map that showed areas where Salmon would be able to survive or thrive. This would allow a visual representation that could then be referenced across different warming scenarios. Results show that a significant loss of habitat would occur at even a 1-2 degree celsius increase from the 22 celsius mean July air temperature. Results also show that there would be an increase in species fragmentation as well. This is useful to my research as it shows a possible method for understanding and showing limits on fish distribution.


Saitoh, S.-I., R. Mugo, I. N. Radiarta, S. Asaga, F. Takahashi, T. Hirawake, Y. Ishikawa, T. Awaji, T. In, and S. Shima. “Some Operational Uses of Satellite Remote Sensing and Marine GIS for Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture.” ICES Journal of Marine Science 68, no. 4 (March 1, 2011): 687–95. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsq190.

Different methods for mapping and modeling species habitat are reviewed here. It is an in-depth look at specific techniques that could produce essential fish habitat (EFH) maps. There is a variety of data that can be used, much of it gained from satellite imagery. SST and conditions are one of the useful pieces of information gained from satellite data, although any data needed for sub-surface may not work as well. Four sampling methods are suggested; regular sampling, random sampling, equal random-stratified sampling, and proportional random-stratified sampling. Table 1 gives an incredibly useful breakdown of different sources of data and their resolutions. Environment and habitat datasets can be put into GIS under a common georeference system. Satellite images are interpreted as raster grids, whereas fisheries data is often used as point topology. They discuss common methods of modelling such as ENFA, GLM, and CART. THe application of these models within GIS then generates maps and therefore potential EFH areas. They stress accurate and robust sampling in order to get the best and most accurate final results and maps. This information is useful to demonstrate on a very specific level, methods to use in order to asses EFH. In a changing climate this habitat could change, therefore it would be useful to use these methods under climate change scenarios.


Awaluddin Halirin Kaimuddin. Climate change impacts on fish species distribution. Approach using GIS, models and climate evolution scenario. Earth Sciences. Université de Bretagne occidentale – Brest, 2016. English.

This study presents an incredibly in depth look at the use of GIS on modeling species distribution and habitat, especially under a changing climate, ultimately in order to understand ideal locations for MPA’s. Many types of data were compiled and analyzed for this project. Data such as shoreline location was taken from previous studies. Sea Surface temperature (SST) and other oceanic data was obtained from satellite imagery. Species occurrence records were obtained mostly from OBIS/Ocean biogeographic information system (http://www.iobis.org) and GBIF/Global biodiversity information facility databases (http://www.gbif.org). GIS models were used, such as Binary Model, Ranking Model, and Rating Model. The result was identifiable areas of species using ecological niches. They noted in the study that GIS allowed flexibility to follow the species distribution over time. All models were in fact regarding a time frame, involving a degree of difficulty that static information does not have to deal with. The specificity of this study and the relevance to distribution in the face of climate change makes this study helpful in the execution and cross-reference of GIS work for my research.


Martin, Kevin St. “Creating a Place for ‘Community’ in New England Fisheries.” Human Ecology Review 15, no. 2 (2008): 10.

The research discussed in this article is slightly different than the typical use of GIS. It is an integrative approach that aims to combine qualitative fishermen data and local ecological knowledge, with maps and spatial correlation. Fishermen were interviewed through the means of a map. Nautical maps were overlain with designated areas of fishing that were sourced from NMFS collected vessel trip report (VTR) data. They used a GIS density-based mapping methodology. Interviewees were given the change to analyze and amend the maps shown them, allowing collaboration and local ecological knowledge to be a voice. Communities were able to show how they have been affected and have responded to environmental and regulation change. This method could easily be relevant to my research, however additional interviews would have to be conducted post map generation and approval. However, this could add an aspect to data collection and collaboration that has not been done much before here along the the Oregon coast.


Silva, Patricia Pinto Da, and Charles Fulcher. “Human Dimensions of Marine Fisheries: Using GIS to Illustrate Land- Sea Connections in the Northeast U.S. Herring, Clupea Harengus, Fishery.” Marine Fisheries Review, n.d., 7.

This article aims at bridging the gap between social, economic and ecological. Typically, it is difficult to combine all three and efforts have been made to combine quantitative and qualitative data. GIS in marine fisheries has been limited but more research and effort has been focused on utilizing this system as a way to bridge the gap between those different types of data. This article looks at the herring fishery off the east coast and attempt to use GIS in order to draw connections between vessels and ports. Although it is not a direct visualization and somewhat simplified, it is useful to see linkages such as the distribution of gear types in various locations. It is also suggested to be used as a baseline for changing fisheries, and in this way could be extremely useful to visualize the effects of climate change. The maps were created with ArcView 8.3 GIS system. Seasonality played a big difference in the data, so separate maps were created from both winter and summer seasons. Data was obtained from various sources, including the State of Maine and the NMFS databases. Types of data included herring landings, catch, gera type, and fishing location. One result of this method showed that purse seine vessels are linked to ports more north, and various trawlers are connected to southern ports. My research data is currently qualitative and this article demonstrates a way in which I could bridge that gap and visualize my data.


Castillo, J. “Relationships between Sea Surface Temperature, Salinity, and Pelagic Fish Distribution off Northern Chile.” ICES Journal of Marine Science 53, no. 2 (April 1996): 139–46. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.1996.0014.

Environmental variables were connected to fish species distribution. The majority of information has used environmental variables in reference to “El Nino” events, but the process and information here could also lend to larger scale climate change responses. Information came from seasonal acoustic cruises along the Humboldt current system in northern Chile, which is where this study focuses. I found the data collection methods interesting, as they used split beam echo-sounders that were connected to GPS systems. Overall, fish species distribution information was obtained as well as oceanographic information such as salinity and temperature. All of this information was then processed using GIS. The inverse-square method was used to interpolate the data. Results of the analysis reveals that anchovies have lower temperature and salinity ranges than sardines and mackerels. All of the species were influenced by thermal and haline fronts, with upwelling strength contributing greatly to their movement. Results then show in a specific quantitative way, that climate change will indeed affect the distribution and location of many fish species. This could be another method to analyze oceanographic and fisheries data in GIS.


Perzia, Patrizia, Pietro Battaglia, Pierpaolo Consoli, Franco Andaloro, and Teresa Romeo. “Swordfish Monitoring by a GIS-Based Spatial and Temporal Distribution Analysis on Harpoon Fishery Data: A Case of Study in the Central Mediterranean Sea.” Fisheries Research 183 (November 2016): 424–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2016.07.006.

The swordfish harpoon fishery in the mediterranean was the focus of this analysis. The goal was to analyze the spatial and temporal catch distributions of the fish especially in reference to SST. Ultimately the information learned through this study would be used to assist fishery management decisions. GIS was used as a database to store and organize the information. It was then used for visual analysis, as well as spatio-temporal analysis. Data was collected from fishermen logbooks, including environmental and biological activity information. ArcGIS 10.1 ESRI was used for this study. Some of the specific tools utilized were “mean center”, “standard distance”, and “standard deviational ellipses”. The distribution maps were overlaid with SST anomaly maps. Final analysis of GIS maps from this study show a possible relationship between SST anomalies and fish catch and distribution. This has many implications for climate change, and is a useful tool to organize, visualize, and analyze the changing environment that will continue into the future. This article stresses the importance of GIS as a possible tool for these types of applications that are sure to be important. This application of GIS could fit into my research project or my interests in that it highlights usefulness of GIS.


Close, C.H., and G. Brent Hall. “A GIS-Based Protocol for the Collection and Use of Local Knowledge in Fisheries Management Planning.” Journal of Environmental Management 78, no. 4 (March 2006): 341–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2005.04.027.

This paper presents the unique combination of local knowledge with GIS. Local fishermen knowledge is fundamental to successful fisheries management. This area of proposed and desired collaboration has grown, with this paper demonstrating ways in which qualitative data can be useful in non traditional ways. This is important to the topic of climate change because fishermen are out on the water more often than not, and are extremely in tune with what is going on in the environment. Therefore, they see many changes that are occurring or will occur. They provide a framework for incorporating scientific knowledge (SK) with local knowledge (LK) and spatio-temporally translating it to fill gaps in knowledge databases. The ultimate goal is to create a more robust base for decision making. Like other similar studies, local knowledge is obtained through interviews that involve talking about and marking up maps brought by the interviewer in a collaborative method. In order to achieve results, buffering and overlay will constitute a majority of the analysis functions. The point of the paper is so outline a methodology of combining this information. This could be an additional aspect to my research if I decided to add in more interviews that follow this method. It could contribute greatly to the validation of qualitative science in the form of LK, since historically it has been difficult to incorporate into management decisions.


Brown, Jason L. “SDMtoolbox: A Python-Based GIS Toolkit for Landscape Genetic, Biogeographic and Species Distribution Model Analyses.” Methods in Ecology and Evolution 5, no. 7 (July 1, 2014): 694–700. https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12200.

Species Distribution Models (SDM) are widely used when looking at ecology and changes in the environment. When looking up GIS related methods for fisheries change due to climate change, SDMs are commonly a result. Since they were commonly related, I wanted to look a bit further into what they mean and how they work. This article briefly overviews SDM and some points necessary for successful use. It also describes scripts that make up what they term the “SDMtoolbox”. Scripts are written in python and used in ArcGIS 10.1 and with a spatial analyst extension as well. Table 1 is a very useful table that outlines the tools, their functions, and their grouping. This might be helpful for me if I decide I wanted to look further in SDM.


Meaden, Geoff . “GIS in Fisheries Management.” GeoCoast Vol. (1) No. (1) pp. (82-101) (October) (2000).

Problems that fisheries management faces in today’s world are increasingly spatio-temporal. Due to this aspect, GIS is now seen as a useful tool to help support “best decisions”. This article discusses the challenges to adoption of GIS for fisheries management. It is also a review of current uses of GIS in management systems. Two of the fields that are currently using GIS is the goal to match fish distributions to environmental parameters (such as climate change), and the general modelling of fish activity and movement. One of the most interesting challenges that this article identifies is that of scale. If you are looking at a detailed scale, then fish movement will probably be very important or seem large. If you are looking at a small scale, then the area is large and fish movement might not seem as important. One of the challenges therefore is to optimize the scale at which analyses takes place. This is helpful for me to think about as I try to formulate possible GIS methods. 3D and 4D is another area that will pose a challenge, since fish species tend to operate and move in these frames. Again, very helpful questions are posed in this paper in order to think critically about designing or using GIS in fisheries management or research.


Zheng, X. “Does the North Atlantic Current Affect Spatial Distribution of Whiting? Testing Environmental Hypotheses Using Statistical and GIS Techniques.” ICES Journal of Marine Science 59, no. 2 (April 2002): 239–53. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.2001.1131.

The distribution of fish and relationship with temperature is the focus of this study. Ocean temperature is assumed to have the largest effect on fish and fisheries. Specifically, whiting is analyzed in relation to SST and SBT. Generalised additive models (GAMs) and GIS are used to determine if the Atlantic current path is related to higher amounts of whiting. Most of the study takes place in the North Sea. SST, SBT, and depth data were all derived from agencies and affiliates (NCAR, ICES, NOAA). Whiting abundance was obtained from fishing vessel data. Essentially, cold and warm areas were overlain with fish abundance of whiting in GIS in order to assess any patterns. Results show that in winter and spring, abundance is related to SST. Warmer water temperatures correlate with a higher amount of whiting present. In summer however, there is no relationship between the two. This shows the seasonality of the system. Although this does not directly address climate change, there remains implications. Creating maps that analyze patterns of temperature with abundance can be useful for determining the effects of climate change on fisheries.


McRea, James E., H.Gary Greene, Victoria M. O’Connell, and W.Waldo Wakefield. “Mapping Marine Habitats with High Resolution Sidescan Sonar.” Oceanologica Acta 22, no. 6 (November 1999): 679–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0399-1784(00)88958-6.

Fish habitat plays a vital role in the resilience and presence of different fish. This article looks at benthic habitats, specifically related to rockfish,  in order to better inform management decisions. Tools used were GIS, MapGrafix, and Map*Factory (raster based GIS program). An interesting aspect of this study is that sidescan interferometry was used in determining bathymetry. Although 3-D data can be difficult to manage and is still a developing area of GIS, XYZ data were organized and visualized using Surfer and the kriging method. Digitization was done with the spaghetti method, thereby eliminating registration and placement errors. Additionally, a submersible checked that all sidescan sonar was accurate. An important note is that they purposely created a system that could be flexible in terms of layers, thereby allowing interchanging of information. Overlay of other variables can be used with the results of this project, such as fish catch and effort. This allows for data of fish changes due to climate change to be overlain with this data, providing a complete view for the best management decisions.


Hooge, P. N., Eichenlaub, W. M., & Solomon, E. K. (2001, January 01). Using GIS to analyze animal movements in the marine environment. Retrieved from https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70188996

This paper investigates the migration and movement of aquatic species using GIS. They created their own tool in order to analyze the movement, called The Animal Movement Analyst Extension (AMAE). This is to be used in conjunction with ArcView GIS. An example of how it can be used is through the point to polyline creation tool, which can then be used in AMAEs display and animation tools in order to show travel paths of animals. Travel paths and times can be queried so that animation only shows daytime migration or any other variable necessary to limit the display. ANother important aspect of the model is that it incorporates the interaction between species using a bootstrap method, taking into account a more holistic view of species interaction and behavior. This article was written in 2001 and 3D capabilities have gotten more advanced, although much work is yet to be done. However, they mention the desire to incorporate AMAE with 3D capabilities in order to better model migration. This could be incorporated into my research as a means for displaying fish migration paths and possibly relating to fishing community changes as well.

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