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Writing Exerciser # 9

Sanitation: sanitation is important practice because it will helps us stay in healthy, prevents many infectious diseases. Clean water, safety food, sanitized hospital environment and et al are so necessary since sanitation kills or reduces bacteria and avoids transmission of diseases in the community. However, sanitation is non selective so it kills all microbes which made reduce good or harmless microbes. Too much clean decreases microbial community would make human less exposure to microbes.

Antibiotics usage: antibiotics is considered a magic that helps reduce the infectious diseases from the time they are discovered. Besides increasing of multiple drugs resistant bacteria, antibiotics makes lots of changes in microbial community. Antibiotics uses reduce the diversity of microbes, some beneficial species disappear under the effectiveness of antibiotics.

Stay in house, not outdoor activity: Children and adult contact more “dirty” things with outdoor activity. Soils, plants, animals are sources with a diversity of microbiomes. Human are exposed to many microbial species. Technology improved children usually play inside the house which less contacted with nature things lead to be less exposed to microbes.

Eat less diversity of foods, less vegetables, fruits and other fiber source: Diversity of foods provide human with many microbes species. Eat less diversity, some species can be missed.

C-section delivery birth: Vaginal delivery baby are exposed to a diverse microbial community than baby was born by C section method. Composition of microbes in baby with vaginal born are similar to mother’s vagina.

Reduced breast feeding and increase formula milk: Breast feeding provides healthy microbes. Formula milk is processed or sterilized, it provides microbes different from breast milk and less diverse.

City or urban development: children are grown up in farms have higher diversity of microbial community than ones live in cities. It dues to less outdoor activity, polluted air. Urban life make human be less exposed to microbes.

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Writing Exercise # 8

The most surprising things the important role of gut microbes to the health of human. Changes in microbial community related to some diseases in digestive system. The changes of microbiota in obesity mouses, microbes affect on diabetes patients, the inference of microbe in the insulin pathway lead to insulin resistance. It is new things is microbes and allergy and asthma disease. There is a research about the use probiotics on pregnant woman, the result show that there is a reduce allergy condition and asthma on children. This is interesting because asthma and allergy is hard to cure, just there is the drugs that helps reduce the symptom, it is the new finding the roles of probiotics in these disease will help many children. Children and food allergy is a worry for patients and especially in family have history of food allergy.

Gut microbes in important in helps to digest some foods, it might related to food allergy. In the other sides, allergy relate the response of immune system. There is a research suggest that intestinal bacteria play role in determining the strength of anaphylactic reactions to food allergy. Antibiotic uses, cesarean birth and formula feeding are associated with increased susceptibility to asthma and allergies later life. These factors affects the colonization of microbio on infants. There is different microbial community between allergic and nonallergics children. Mom takes probiotics during gestation period can reduce the risk of allergy and asthma development.

Base on the above writing, I think the topic of gut microbes and food allergy is the one I want to write for my final paper, I want to research further about how intestinal microbial community changes on food allergy children and the role of probiotics taken during pregnancy helps reduce the allergy in child or not.

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Writing Exercise # 7

Potential factors that the mother or the infant could be exposed to that could influence the colonization of the microbial community in the newborn infant.

Mode of birth: gut microbiota of vaginally born infants is colonized by bacteria from maternal vagina and infants born by C-section indicates a relative resemblance  to maternal skin and oral microbiota from mom. And more bacterial taxa in the infants delivered vaginally compared with infants delivered by C-section. This can be considered as a protective factor for vaginally born infants when C-section born children acquired infection 1 year earlier than vaginally delivered infants in dental cares.

Diets and new environmental exposures during first two years: alpha diversity of gut microbes of infants increases over time. The methods of feeding as breast milk, formula and then solid foods. A diversity of food increases the diversity of gut microbes. Breast milk provides healthy microbes for the newborn and they are extremely diverse and dominant microbes change over the course of lactation period.

Breast milk and formula feeding: Bifidobacteria are the most abundant organisms in breast-fed infants guts comparing to Enterococci and Clostridia in formula-fed infants, but gut of formula-fed infant contains fewer bacterial cells and more species diversity. Breast-fed infants contain oral lactobacilli with antimicrobial properties that are not found in formula-fed infants

Hormonal, immunological and metabolic changes on mother: Immune system changes strictly as female is pregnant, some degree of suppression to accept the growing of fetus and other remain to protect the mother and body. During pregnancy, implantation and parturition are considers as inflammatory stage. Inflammation can lead to changes which negatively affect on mother and baby as less alpha diversity or change the contribution of microbes. For example, from the first to third trimester, increasing Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria phyla abundance in mother’s gut microbes, and also reduce the number of taxa groups. Metabolic changes can result in weight gain, elevated blood glucose levels, insulin resistance and low grade inflammation. Weight gain and increased blood glucose related to the change gut microbial community on mother. Gut microbes change to enhance glucose absorption and increase fasting-induced adipocyte factor secretion. It finds that maternal weight is a major influencing factor in shaping milk bacterial composition.

Mother’s diets: High fat diets of mother during gestation changes gut microbe of mom. Diets of mom during feeding period can changes the microbial composition in milk.

Antibiotics use during pregnancy: antibiotic treatment during pregnancy reduce bacterial diversity, it causes the normal abundance of species changes as increase Proteobacteria and enterobacter while reducing Firmicute Sand and Lactobacillus.  A certain change in microbial community on mother affects offspring’s microbiota.

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Writing Exercise # 6

Penicillin used to be the miracle drug for infectious diseases in the first time it is introduced to Vietnam. Then many other generations and kinds of antibiotics have been coming to Vietnam. In a country where we can have antibiotics without prescription from doctors. Antibiotics can be dispensed easily to someone just step in the pharmacy with running-nose or sore throat symptom. I was not sure the first time I used antibiotics, but I think it was when I was just a kids since now I see doctors and pharmacists in my country, they use antibiotics even on the children without careful consideration. Although more tools to access to the world’s knowledge about the consequence of improper antibiotic usage, many people in my country still want to take antibiotics when they have just a cold, flu or viral infection. Amoxicillin seems to be ineffective and multi-drug resistant bacteria is huge current issue in Vietnam. I remember the time as I took antibiotics was many years ago. When I has high fever, sore throat, and cough for a couple days when painkillers didn’t work and cough became worse, I went to talk to a pharmacist and she gave me three days of antibiotics with other painkillers and vitamins. After taking all, I felt better. Now, look back it was really bad experience. I think I might have a flu, but I took antibiotics, and it was coincidence that make me feel that antibiotics was effective in flu. Therefore, I can understand why many Vietnamese people think antibiotics help with all diseases, they do not know what is drug resistance and how dangerous it is. If I did not have a chance to study about antibiotics, I would believe that antibiotics are effective in flu.

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Writing Exercise # 5

Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that provide microbes to improve its intestinal microbial balance. Prebiotics are indigestible fibers that promote the growth and function of probiotics. The combination of them are called synbiotics. Probiotics helps boost our system and promote the health of digestive system.

The intentional products that I am consuming to increase the diversity of gut microbes are yogurt and probiotic drink. Yogurt is probably well-known for the best food providing microbial flora. Besides provides nutrients, calcium, or vitamin B; yogurt also induces new strains of microbes as lactobacillus, bifidus and acidophilus to our digestive system. Probiotic drink is chosen over the soft drink. I feel like I consume lots of sugar from soft drink, and I like some drink with favors than just water. I know this products lately, and it is better tolerated by those like me with lactose-intolerance than other dairy-based fermented foods.

The non-intentional products which helps me improve gut microbes are pickles, onion, garlic, vegetables and fruits. I have Asian meals with many kinds of vegetables. High fiber diets are digested by certain gut microbes which stimulates the growth of them. Fibers also help prevent the growth of some disease-causing bacteria. Adding garlic, onion to vegetable and stir-fry them with olive oil are ways that Vietnamese people use to increase the favors of vegetables. Onion and garlic are prebiotics that are cheap, easy to find in the markets, also sources of antioxidant. Apples and blueberries are popular fruit in most family, they have been shown to increase Bifidobacteria that are considered beneficial bacteria as they help to reduce the growth of bacteria accounting for intestinal inflammation. Kim-chi or ginger, onion, garlic pickles usually uses in Asian dishes, we use them to increase the taste and help for digesting food better. These fermented products help enhance our gut microbes unintentionally.

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Writing Exercise # 4

        Take S, Mizuno M, Ishiki K, Hamada F, Yoshida T, Yokota K, Okada H, Yamamoto K. 2015. Seventeen-year effects of eradicating Helicobacter pylori on the prevention of gastric cancer in patients with peptic ulcer; a prospective cohort study. Journal of gastroenterology. 50(6):638-644.


(1) Susumu Take and other doctors at Internal Medicine Department of credential hospitals in Japan entitled “Seventeen-year effects of eradicating Helicobacter pylori on the prevention of gastric cancer in patients with peptic ulcer; a prospective cohort study” (2015) asserts that H.pylori eradication of H.pylori in patients with peptic ulcer disease reduced the risk of developing gastric cancer to approximately one-third after a following-up period as long as 17.4 years. (2) Take provides evidences that the risk of developing gastric cancer in the eradication-success group 0.21% per year was significantly lower than the eradication-non success group 0.45% per year; and the longest time between the initial H.pylori eradication and the the occurrence of gastric cancer was 14.5 years in the eradication-success group and 13.7  years in the eradication-failure group. (3) The purpose of this study is to show effects of H.pylori eradication on the prevention of gastric cancer on patients with peptic ulcer, and so we learn that the effect for gastric cancer persists for more than 10 years after H.pylori eradication therapy, and aware of cancerous development after that time. (4) Susumu establishes a caution and follow-up for prevent gastric cancers on peptic ulcer patients after the H.Pylori eradication for doctors in internal medicine field, as well as peptic ulcer patients to take care themselves to optimize their health.

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Writing exercise # 3 – Gut Microbes

Less diversity and imbalance of gut microbes influences diseases such irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, obesity and Type 2 diabetes. There are some strategies to manipulate the gut microflora

  1. Eating fermented product – Fermented products as pickles or yogurt not only provide us some beneficial enzyme for the digestive system but also induce various, new strains of microbes to gut environment and enhance its function.These will improve the diversity of our gut microbial ecosystem which will bring us many benefits to avoid diseases relating to gut microbes.
  2. Eating diverse range of foods – A diet with different food types will diverse gut microbes. The more diverse, the healthier digestive system. Diets with lots of vegetables, legumes, beans and fruits are much better than high sugar, red meat. Fiber promotes the growth of gut microbes, provide vitamins and antioxidants necessary for body’s mechanism, and enhances our immune system.
  3. Adap a healthy lifestyle – Stress and unhealthy lifestyle makes us to be more susceptible to inflammation. A study of age-related physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract of older people that are characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation which can lead to a microbial imbalance. Aged and inflammation can create imbalance in gut microflora so a healthy life such as exercise, eating rich fiber diets, coping with stress would endurance immune system to fight back infectious agents as bacteria, virus.
  4. Eliminate processed food and reduce amount of sugar consumption – Sugar is the good source for microbes, consumption of large amount of sugar and trans-fats impacts on the proportion of gut microbial species in gastrointestinal tract. Processed food and sugar is one of causes for obesity. Gut microbes and obesity are close related together. Reducing obesity can improve the gut microbiota because studies show that there is reduces some species as Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes phyla, Clostridium leptum in obesity patients.
  5. Take prebiotics and probiotics supplements – Taking some extra probiotics can induce new strains to gut microflora helping balance between gut species  which give us benefits for reducing risks of inflammation of GI tract.
  6. Limit antibiotics – Antibiotics kills target bacteria, but also affects flora bacteria including gut microbiota. These effects can be neutral or harmful to individual in short period of time, the gut microbes can be recover after stop taking antibiotics. But I it will affect the entire gut microbe system in the community for long time run.

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Writing Exercise # 2-The potential benefits of HPV vaccination

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the US. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 79 million Americans are currently infected with HPV, 14 million people become newly infected each year and more than 11,000 women get cervical cancer each year in the US). In 1974, Harald zur Hausen discovered that HPV cause cervical cancer that led him to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2008. There are many types of HPV, among them HPVs 16, 18, 31 and 45  classified as high-risk for cervical cancer accounting for 80% of cervical cancer in women. Many other types have been classified as possibly carcinogenic group. There are two approaches for cervical cancer control is that vaccination to prevent HPV infections, and HPV screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. Seeking the prevention and early treatment for HPV infection to prevent its cancerous incidence is so necessary and significant to reduce the cost for healthcare.

For now, there is no cure for HPV, but vaccines are available to prevent HPV infection. Vaccination is most effective way for cervical cancer primary prevention strategy. Vaccines that is currently available in markets have the potential to prevent 70% of cervical cancers caused by HPV 16 and 18 in adequately vaccinated population. The price of vaccination is affordable and HPV vaccination is now implementary national programs in many countries. Although the cost of developing a new vaccine for each strain is very pricey, and HPV has more than ten strains classified as a high-risk types for development of cervical cancers. But keep in mind that vaccination is cost-effective. A estimates of annual direct medical cost of the prevention and treatment of HPV-associated disease in the United States for all HPV types. The cost included cervical cancer screening and follow-up and the treatment costs of the following HPV-associated health outcomes such as genital warts, cervical cancers and other anogenital cancers. The result is not really surprised to us, it costs about 8.0 billion US dollars for preventing and treating HPV-associated disease every year. Of this total cost, about $6.6 billion (82.3%) was for routine cervical cancer screening and follow-up, $1.0 billion (12.0%) was for cancer treatment. Therefore, vaccination will help reduce dramatically the burden cost for healthcare.



Chesson, H. W., Ekwueme, D. U., Saraiya, M., Watson, M., Lowy, D. R., & Markowitz, L. E. (2012). Estimates of the annual direct medical costs of the prevention and treatment of disease associated with human papillomavirus in the United States. Vaccine, 30(42), 6016-6019.

Human Papillomavirus (2016).Retrieved April 16 from https://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/stdfact-hpv.htm

Sankaranarayanan, R. (2015). HPV vaccination: The most pragmatic cervical cancer primary prevention strategy. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 131, S33-S35.

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Writing Exercise #1- Microbes and Non-infectious diseases

Human non-infectious diseases that are influenced by microorganisms

  • Obesity
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Asthma
  • Chronic lungs diseases
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Colon cancer

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