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Writing exercise # 3 – Gut Microbes

Less diversity and imbalance of gut microbes influences diseases such irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, obesity and Type 2 diabetes. There are some strategies to manipulate the gut microflora

  1. Eating fermented product – Fermented products as pickles or yogurt not only provide us some beneficial enzyme for the digestive system but also induce various, new strains of microbes to gut environment and enhance its function.These will improve the diversity of our gut microbial ecosystem which will bring us many benefits to avoid diseases relating to gut microbes.
  2. Eating diverse range of foods – A diet with different food types will diverse gut microbes. The more diverse, the healthier digestive system. Diets with lots of vegetables, legumes, beans and fruits are much better than high sugar, red meat. Fiber promotes the growth of gut microbes, provide vitamins and antioxidants necessary for body’s mechanism, and enhances our immune system.
  3. Adap a healthy lifestyle – Stress and unhealthy lifestyle makes us to be more susceptible to inflammation. A study of age-related physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract of older people that are characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation which can lead to a microbial imbalance. Aged and inflammation can create imbalance in gut microflora so a healthy life such as exercise, eating rich fiber diets, coping with stress would endurance immune system to fight back infectious agents as bacteria, virus.
  4. Eliminate processed food and reduce amount of sugar consumption – Sugar is the good source for microbes, consumption of large amount of sugar and trans-fats impacts on the proportion of gut microbial species in gastrointestinal tract. Processed food and sugar is one of causes for obesity. Gut microbes and obesity are close related together. Reducing obesity can improve the gut microbiota because studies show that there is reduces some species as Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes phyla, Clostridium leptum in obesity patients.
  5. Take prebiotics and probiotics supplements – Taking some extra probiotics can induce new strains to gut microflora helping balance between gut species  which give us benefits for reducing risks of inflammation of GI tract.
  6. Limit antibiotics – Antibiotics kills target bacteria, but also affects flora bacteria including gut microbiota. These effects can be neutral or harmful to individual in short period of time, the gut microbes can be recover after stop taking antibiotics. But I it will affect the entire gut microbe system in the community for long time run.

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Writing Exercise # 2-The potential benefits of HPV vaccination

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the US. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 79 million Americans are currently infected with HPV, 14 million people become newly infected each year and more than 11,000 women get cervical cancer each year in the US). In 1974, Harald zur Hausen discovered that HPV cause cervical cancer that led him to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2008. There are many types of HPV, among them HPVs 16, 18, 31 and 45  classified as high-risk for cervical cancer accounting for 80% of cervical cancer in women. Many other types have been classified as possibly carcinogenic group. There are two approaches for cervical cancer control is that vaccination to prevent HPV infections, and HPV screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. Seeking the prevention and early treatment for HPV infection to prevent its cancerous incidence is so necessary and significant to reduce the cost for healthcare.

For now, there is no cure for HPV, but vaccines are available to prevent HPV infection. Vaccination is most effective way for cervical cancer primary prevention strategy. Vaccines that is currently available in markets have the potential to prevent 70% of cervical cancers caused by HPV 16 and 18 in adequately vaccinated population. The price of vaccination is affordable and HPV vaccination is now implementary national programs in many countries. Although the cost of developing a new vaccine for each strain is very pricey, and HPV has more than ten strains classified as a high-risk types for development of cervical cancers. But keep in mind that vaccination is cost-effective. A estimates of annual direct medical cost of the prevention and treatment of HPV-associated disease in the United States for all HPV types. The cost included cervical cancer screening and follow-up and the treatment costs of the following HPV-associated health outcomes such as genital warts, cervical cancers and other anogenital cancers. The result is not really surprised to us, it costs about 8.0 billion US dollars for preventing and treating HPV-associated disease every year. Of this total cost, about $6.6 billion (82.3%) was for routine cervical cancer screening and follow-up, $1.0 billion (12.0%) was for cancer treatment. Therefore, vaccination will help reduce dramatically the burden cost for healthcare.

 

Reference:

Chesson, H. W., Ekwueme, D. U., Saraiya, M., Watson, M., Lowy, D. R., & Markowitz, L. E. (2012). Estimates of the annual direct medical costs of the prevention and treatment of disease associated with human papillomavirus in the United States. Vaccine, 30(42), 6016-6019.

Human Papillomavirus (2016).Retrieved April 16 from https://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/stdfact-hpv.htm

Sankaranarayanan, R. (2015). HPV vaccination: The most pragmatic cervical cancer primary prevention strategy. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 131, S33-S35.

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Writing Exercise #1- Microbes and Non-infectious diseases

Human non-infectious diseases that are influenced by microorganisms

  • Obesity
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Asthma
  • Chronic lungs diseases
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Colon cancer

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